[学术文献] Buy or make? Agricultural production diversity, markets and dietary diversity in Afghanistan 进入全文
Increasing on-farm production diversity and improving markets are recognized as ways to improve the dietary diversity of smallholders. Using instrumental variable methods to account for endogeneity, we study the interplay of production diversity, markets and diets in the context of seasonality in Afghanistan. We confirm an important seasonal dimension to the interplay. Improved crop diversity over the year is positively associated with dietary diversity in the regular season, but not in the lean season. Livestock species diversity remains important for dietary diversity throughout the year, but particularly so in the lean season when the influence of cropping diversity is low. Market aspects become important for dietary diversity specifically in the lean season.
According to the Chinese Zodiac, 2019 is the Year of the Pig. This year has certainly lived up to its name. The discovery and subsequent outbreaks of the African Swine Fever (ASF) virus in China in August 2018 sent shockwaves through the hog market. ASF is a highly contagious virus that ravages hog herds and currently has no cure. The price of US hog futures surged by 67% during March-April as the scale of the potential losses became clearer. Since then though prices have retraced 50% of the earlier spike higher, falling back to around 70 cents per lb.
Wheat and barley production in Australia is forecast to rise in MY 2019/20 as a result of expanded planting area for both of these crops, as well as improved moisture conditions in some production regions. Drought conditions, however, still remain in a substantial part of the growing area. For wheat, although production is forecast to increase to 21.5 MMT in MY 2019/20, this is still below average levels. The reduced wheat supply in MY 2018/19, as a result of the drought, has resulted in reduced exports to key markets such as Indonesia, as well as imports of bulk wheat grain for the first time in a decade.
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During second quarter of the year Ukrainian economy grew by 0.3%. In all honesty this is a joke of a number. Considering how much potential our country has we could be growing at a much faster rate. It is sad to talk about this numbers because it is so far away from even the average growth of developing nations that it is insane. Even though dollar index continues to grow, Ukrainian currency is still stable and is not in a rush to devaluate or appreciate. Ukrainian ministry of finance continues to issue new obligations which provide great support for hryvna. During this week our currency should be more or less stable.
China’s retail sector recorded $5.4 trillion in sales revenue in 2017, a 10 percent increase from 2016, with similar strong growth expected to have happened in 2018. Driven by its huge population, urbanization, and the rising per capita disposable income of the growing middle class, China’s demand for imported consumer-oriented food products is expected to grow at a steady pace. Chinese consumers’ demand for convenience is driven by busy lifestyles and facilitated by farreaching digitalization. In 2018, China’s import of consumer-oriented food products reached approximately $45 billion, up 18 percent from 2017. Data-driven ‘new retail’ formats combining online and offline (O2O) have a firm footing and are expanding rapidly and creating new competition and challenges for traditional retailers. Increased tariffs on U.S. products have some retailers looking for substitute products. Opportunities exist for fresh and dried fruit, beef, dairy, seafood, nuts, pork and other products.
In the near future, we will be able to mass-produce meat directly from animal cells. This cultured meat could change the world -- or it could falter like GM 'frankenfoods.' Writing in Frontiers in Nutrition, researchers warn that the most common media framing of cultured meat -- as a 'high-tech' innovation -- may be the least effective in garnering consumer acceptance.