[学术文献] The long overhang of bad decisions in agro-industrial development: Sugar and tomato paste in Ghana 进入全文
In theory, learning from past mistakes should result in adapted and improved development policy. However policy learning can be difficult to achieve, and the link between learning and policy change is neither direct nor immediate. In this study we look at learning in agro-industrial policy in Ghana, by tracing the interest in sugar production and tomato processing over six decades. Specifically we ask why four failed factories established in the early 1960s have continued to play central roles in both policy and public discourse. Using policy documents, academic material, and the popular press, we show that Ghana’s policy focus on sugar production and tomato processing has endured, despite the fact that the factories were misconceived, poorly sited, ill-equipped and poorly managed. Indeed, the political ideas that underpinned the establishment of these factories in the early days of independence can be seen in the current One District, One Factory policy. We suggest that it is their symbolic and political value, not their economic value, which keeps the discussion around these factories alive. Even when shut down, they are a physical manifestation of historic commitments by the state, and as such they guarantee the attention of politicians, and hold out hope of a next re-launch. Unfortunately as long as the factories continue to be incorporated into each new generation of agro-industrial policy, it is difficult for any alternatives to gain traction. This analysis highlights the very long overhang of bad decisions, particularly when they are associated with physical infrastructure. Learning from past mistakes will only happen if the short-term political cost of turning policy learning into policy action can be overcome.
MY2019/20 rice production is revised down as the main rice crop was affected by flooding. Rice exports are revised down further due to strong competition in low-quality rice markets.
Genome editing has made one of the world’s most important crops resistant to a devastating bacterial infection. Bacterial blight, which is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo), can slash farmers’ yields of rice, which is a staple food for billions of people. Seeking to lessen the blight’s impact, Ricardo Oliva at the International Rice Research Institute in Manila and his colleagues studied Xoo genes that code for proteins called TALEs. Xoo use these proteins to turn on the plant’s SWEET genes, which produce sugar-transporting molecules. This gives the bacteria access to nutrients in the plants’ leaves.
非洲猪瘟引发的肉类批发价格飙升可能在中国食品零售行业引发一场危机，因为相关经营者难以将大部分价格上涨转嫁给消费者。10月，猪肉批发价格较上年同期上涨近159%，是零售价格涨幅（近73%）的两倍多，对餐馆、肉店和其他食品零售店造成冲击。这一趋势也反映在其他肉类和蛋白质来源上，包括牛肉、鸡肉和鸡蛋。这表明，在中国经济增长放缓至6%的30年低点之际，猪瘟的影响正开始波及更广泛的经济领域。“我们不知道非洲猪瘟会对经济造成多大损害，”咨询公司卓创资讯(Sublime China Information)的分析师郭丹丹表示，“但情况越来越糟。”
Global Food Security
Humanity faces the challenge of feeding a growing population andsupplying its energy needs without exhausting the biological and phy-sical resources of the planet, as articulated in the SustainableDevelopment Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN GeneralAssembly, 2015). Achieving food and nutrition security is central to theSDGs. As the global population grows and becomes wealthier, the de-mand for food, especially animal-source food will increase particularlyin developing countries (Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012). Increasingdemand for animal-source food, moreover, is intrinsically associatedwith an increasing demand for feed (Thornton, 2010).
Fifty-four percent of South Africans are hungry or at risk of hunger. Hunger affects people’s health, as well as their ability to live full and productive lives. That’s why hunger represents a violation of their basic human rights – not only the right to food, but also the rights to dignity, health and education, since all of these are affected by hunger. Hunger, malnutrition and related illnesses are not evenly spread. There are significant race, class and gender differences. For example, black South Africans are 22 times more likely to be food insecure compared with white South Africans. Food insecurity is defined as not having physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.