[学术文献] Decoding neighbour volatiles in preparation for future competition and implications for tritrophic interactions 进入全文
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 期刊
Plant volatile signals can provide important information about the physiological status and genetic identity of the emitter, and nearby plants can use this information to detect competitive neighbours. The novelty of these signals is that plants eavesdropping to volatiles of undamaged neighbours respond with typical competition responses, even before competition takes place, initiating specific growth responses that can increase their competitive capacity. This preparing for future competition mechanism affects the behaviour and abundance of herbivore pests and their natural enemies. Previously, such responses were only known to occur in response to volatiles released by damaged plants. However, volatile interactions occur only in specific combination of species/genotypes, indicating that plants use volatile signals in the detection and adaption only to substantial competitive neighbours.
Trends in Biotechnology 期刊
Floral scent has an important role in the reproductive processes of many plants and a considerable economic value in guaranteeing yield and quality of many crops. It also enhances the aesthetic properties of ornamental plants and cut flowers. Many floral scent volatiles fall into the terpenoid or phenylpropanoid/benzenoid classes of compounds. Although the biochemistry of floral scent is still a relatively new field of investigation, in the past decade investigators have begun to identify ‘scent genes’. Several of these genes, most of which, but not all, encode enzymes that directly catalyze the formation of volatile terpenoid or phenylpropanoid/benzenoid compounds, have now been used to manipulate, through genetic engineering techniques, the mix of volatiles emitted from the flowers of several plant species. The outcomes of these experiments, which are discussed here, have indicated that the genetic engineering approach to altering floral scents has potential; however, they have also revealed the limitations that result from our inadequate knowledge of the metabolic pathways responsible for scents and their regulation.
Plant Physiology 期刊
Many plants respond to herbivory by releasing a specific blend of volatiles that is attractive to natural enemies of the herbivores. In corn (Zea mays), this induced odor blend is mainly composed of terpenoids and indole. The induced signal varies with plant species and genotype, but little is known about the variation due to abiotic factors. Here, we tested the effect of soil humidity, air humidity, temperature, light, and fertilization rate on the emission of induced volatiles in young corn plants. Each factor was tested separately under constant conditions for the other factors. Plants released more when standing in dry soil than in wet soil, whereas for air humidity, the optimal release was found at around 60% relative humidity. Temperatures between 22°C and 27°C led to a higher emission than lower or higher temperatures. Light intensity had a dramatic effect. The emission of volatiles did not occur in the dark and increased steadily with an increase in the light intensity. An experiment with an unnatural light-dark cycle showed that the release was fully photophase dependent. Fertilization also had a strong positive effect; the emission of volatiles was minimal when plants were grown under low nutrition, even when results were corrected for plant biomass. Changes in all abiotic factors caused small but significant changes in the relative ratios among the different compounds (quality) in the induced odor blends, except for air humidity. Hence, climatic conditions and nutrient availability can be important factors in determining the intensity and variability in the release of induced plant volatiles.
[学术文献] Synthetic blends of volatile, phytopathogen-induced odorants can be used to manipulate vector behavior 进入全文
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 期刊
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from all plants and these VOCs are important means of communication between plants and insects. It has been documented that pathogen infections alter VOC profiles rendering infected plants more attractive to specific vectors transmitting these pathogens than uninfected plants, thus potentially aiding in pathogen propagation. Mimicking these chemical cues might enable insect attraction away from the plant or disruption of host finding behavior of the vector. However, the practical implications have not been fully explored. We used citrus, Diaphorina citri and huanglongbing (HLB) as a model host-vector-disease system because HLB threatens citrus production worldwide and is similar to other critical diseases of food crops, such as Zebra Chip affecting potato. We formulated a synthetic chemical blend using selected HLB-specific biomarker compounds, and tested the blend with the Attenu assay system for chemosensory proteins. The Attenu assay system is a procedure that identifies interactions between insect chemosensory proteins and their ligands. We found that an equimolar mixture of compounds mimicking the volatile profile of HLB-infected citrus bound chemosensory proteins. Further investigation of this blend in laboratory behavioral assays resulted in development of a synthetic lure that was more attractive to D. citri than natural citrus tree volatiles. This strategy could provide a new route to produce chemical lures for vector population control for a variety of plant and/or animal systems and it may result in the development of a practical lure for monitoring vectors of disease, such as D. citri.
World Tea News 网站
The Global Tea Championship’s Spring Hot (Loose Leaf) Competition took place Sept. 29 in Boulder, Colorado. Three tea experts—Lydia Kung, Richard Enticott and Rob McCaleb—judged 168 teas submitted by 44 companies from 16 countries. Lydia Kung, owner of VeriLeaf Fine Teas, and Richard Enticott, owner of the Meridian Trading Company, shared their insights.When evaluating the tea entries the defining characteristics of each category provided the benchmark for comparison, rather than other submissions in the same category. Furthermore, teas that scored enough points to win a gold medal always—in leaf appearance and flavor—exhibited clearly and distinctively the features one expects of the category, said Kung.
[相关专利] Compositions for Prevention and/or Treatment of Gastrointestinal Imbalances in Digestive Disorders 进入全文