根据FAOSTAT，最新统计了2017年度全球及五大洲茶叶总产量，2013-2017年度相应数据见Tea Production Quantity in World and Five Continents in 2013-2017（FAOSTAT）.
World Tea News 网站
World Tea Academy (WTA), the leading online tea education and certification program from the organizers and creators of World Tea Expo and the Global Tea Championship, has experienced significant growth with students participating from around the world. Since launching in 2013, World Tea Academy has enrolled more than 700 students spanning 44 countries, six continents, six Canadian provinces and 43 of the 50 United States, plus the District of Columbia. As a result, the digital-based learning platform has expanded its curriculum, added a new leadership position and launched an enhanced website.
Insect Science 期刊
The recent description of a new vibrational mating disruption method to control the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball opened questions about its possible application to other leafhopper pests. Since the prerequisite for the method's successful application is a deep knowledge of the species mating behavior and the exact role of associated signals, we conducted behavioral assays on the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Göthe, a pest of grapevine and other crops in Europe and Asia. Laser vibrometer recordings of single and paired individuals (male and female) during a 24‐h period enabled us to detect and describe 2 male and 1 female signal. The pair formation starts when the female replies to a male call and a duet is established, then it continues through 2 different behavioral stages: Location and Courtship. The proper courtship begins only when the male locates the female. The latter is characterized by a significant change in temporal parameters that regards both the signals and the duet structure. Although the male calling activity and the female replying rate were the same during the 24 h, a lower number of matings was recorded during the night. We discuss the possible role of vision and of the species ecology as factors of reproductive success and mating strategy. Our conclusion is that the mechanical mating disruption technique seems feasible for future application to this species.
[学术文献] Manipulating behaviour with substrate‐borne vibrations – potential for insect pest control 进入全文
Pest Management Science 期刊
This review presents an overview of the potential use of substrate‐borne vibrations for the purpose of achieving insect pest control in the context of integrated pest management. Although the importance of mechanical vibrations in the life of insects has been fairly well established, the effect of substrate‐borne vibrations has historically been understudied, in contrast to sound sensu stricto. Consequently, the idea of using substrate‐borne vibrations for pest control is still in its infancy. This review therefore focuses on the theoretical background, using it to highlight potential applications in a field environment, and lists the few preliminary studies that have been or are being performed. Conceptual similarities to the use of sound, as well as limitations inherent in this approach, are also noted.
[学术文献] Characterization of substrate-borne vibrational signals of Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) 进入全文
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 期刊
Abstract : Problem statement: Stink bugs were not major pests of cotton in the southeastern United States until cotton varieties containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes came into common use, enabling reductions in insecticide applications against highly destructive lepidopteran pests. To maintain the benefits of reduced insecticide applications, it would be advantageous to detect and target isolated populations of stink bugs before they rise to economically important levels. However, detection methods for these pests are less than optimal, and alternative methods are being investigated. One novel method of detection would be to exploit substrate-borne vibrational signals of these bugs. Approach: To develop an effective vibration detection method, substrate-borne vibrational signals produced by different species commonly occurring in the region must be characterized sufficiently to enable detection of these species in the absence of visual observation. In this research, substrate-borne vibrational signals were recorded from the brown stink bug Euschistus servus. These signals were categorized by dominant frequency, duration, and repetition time using a Gaussian mixture model, revealing an assortment of "songs" in an acoustic repertoire. Results: Females of E. servus emitted two distinct songs while males of E. servusemitted four distinct songs. Results indicated that the repertoire of this species differs from that of other species in the same geographical location (southeastern United States) reported in previous literature. Conclusion/Recommendations: In conclusion, detection of pentatomid pests by their substrate-borne vibrational signals must include the parameters of each unique song of each species of stink bug to be detected, including those of the two female and four male songs of E. servus. The characterization of these songs will allow for the development of a monitoring system in the field using strategically placed accelerometers to detect stink bug vibrational communication and thus provide a density map of the location of these pests.
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 期刊
The structure of male mating signals is often influenced by age. The causes and consequences of age-based signal variation have been much studied in visual, acoustic, and chemical signaling modalities, but are less explored in species that use vibrational signals for mate attraction. However, the complex structure of many vibrational signals makes them ideal for investigating the relationships between age, signal variation, and patterns of female choice. In the thornbug treehopper, Umbonia crassicornis, females mate more often with older males, but the mechanism underlying older male mating success is unknown. Our goals in this study were to determine whether male vibrational mate advertisement signals vary with age, and, if so, whether females prefer the signals of older males. We recorded male signals over four consecutive weeks beginning at the onset of signaling (a period spanning most of the male reproductive lifespan), and measured ten temporal, spectral, and energy-related parameters from each signal. Several features of male signals changed markedly with age. However, females responded similarly to signals representing males of different ages, indicating that they do not favor older males on the basis of long distance mate advertisement signals. Nonetheless, the results reveal that even in short-lived, determinate growth species age can have surprisingly large effects on mating signals, and we discuss some factors that may contribute to age-related signal variability in U. crassicornis.