[学术文献] Neuroprotective effect of organic and inorganically grown tea on oxidative damage in rat model of Alzheimer’s disease 进入全文
Advances in Traditional Medicine 期刊
Production of improved valued tea is in high demand due to its pharmacological properties against various neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, an attempt was made to compare the protective effect of the tea grown under organic and inorganic nutrient management practices against intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v) colchicine induced memory impairment and oxidative damage in rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Results showed that chronic intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of tea extract (20 mg/kg i.p) significantly improved the cognitive dysfunction and memory impairment in colchicine treated AD rat model. This beneficial effect occurred with an increase in α-secretase activity, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase activities, and a decrease in Acetylcholinesterase level, Aβ -42 level, Cox-2-linked neuro-inflammation by intraperitoneal injection of tea extract grown organically and inorganically. The amyloid Aβ concentration in the rat model of AD was 84 ± 1.7 pg/mg protein. With administration of tea extract, the amyloid Aβ concentration decreased significantly to 55 ± 1.5, 52 ± 1.3 and 49 ± 1.5 pg/mg protein with the field level management of inorganic, integrated and organic nutrients, respectively. In this study celecoxib (20 mg/kg i.p) is used as a reference standard. This study stated organic tea as a promising neuroprotective agent or adjuvant to prevent AD.
The article reports on the decision of the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) to withdraw the proposed caution statement for its powdered decaffeinated green tea extract monograph. Dandapantula Sarma, scientific liaison for USP Dietary Supplements Information, cited the reasons behind the decision. A background of USP is offered. It is noted that some industry companies and organizations expressed opposition to a caution statement following the proposal.
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 期刊
Prodrugs are bioreversible derivatives of drug molecules that undergo an enzymatic and/or chemical transformation in vivo to release the active parent drug, which can then exert the desired pharmacological effect. In both drug discovery and development, prodrugs have become an established tool for improving physicochemical, biopharmaceutical or pharmacokinetic properties of pharmacologically active agents. About 5–7% of drugs approved worldwide can be classified as prodrugs, and the implementation of a prodrug approach in the early stages of drug discovery is a growing trend. To illustrate the applicability of the prodrug strategy, this article describes the most common functional groups that are amenable to prodrug design, and highlights examples of prodrugs that are either launched or are undergoing human trials.
Proceedings of the XIV Biennial Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research International
"Modern" medicine and pharmacology require an effective medical drug with clear structure, clear target and pathway for a specific disease. This seams very scientific but usually has unavoidable side effects. For example, the chemical therapy to cancer can totally damage the immunological ability of the patient leading to death early than non-treatment. On the other hand, natural antioxidant drugs not only can cure the disease but also can enhance the immunological ability of the patient leading to healthier though they may not have clear structures, clear targets and pathways for a specific disease. For the degenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), natural antioxidant drugs also have better effects than "modern" medical drugs. Because the pathogenesis of these diseases is complex with many targets and pathways, it is difficult for the modern medicine with a single target and single pathway to cure these diseases but it is suitable for natural antioxidant drugs with multiple components, functions, targets and pathways. These effects are more evidence when the clinic trial is for long term treatment. The author reviews the studies on the protecting effects of natural antioxidants on neurons against neurodegenerative diseases, especially summarized the results about protective effect of green tea polyphenols on neurons against apoptosis of cellular and animal PD models, and of genestien and nicotine on neurons against A(3-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neu-ronal and transgenic mouse AD models.
Annual Review of Public Health 期刊
Pesticides are widely used in agricultural and other settings, resulting in continuing human exposure. Epidemiologic studies indicate that, despite premarket animal testing, current exposures are associated with risks to human health. In this review, we describe the routes of pesticide exposures occurring today, and summarize and evaluate the epidemiologic studies of pesticide-related carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity in adults. Better understanding of the patterns of exposure, the underlying variability within the human population, and the links between the animal toxicology data and human health effects will improve the evaluation of the risks to human health posed by pesticides. Improving epidemiology studies and integrating this information with toxicology data will allow the human health risks of pesticide exposure to be more accurately judged by public health policy makers.