[行业报告] How India’s agrifood supply chains fared during the COVID-19 lockdown, from farm to fork 进入全文
Lockdowns imposed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have disrupted food markets across India. Sudha Narayanan of the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research explains that nevertheless, parts of the food system have thus far proven “surprisingly resilient”—and that what happened can only be understood taking into account the complexity and variety of India’s food supply chains. The government, traditional retailers, and innovations in supply chains all played key roles in response to the crisis. However, many challenges remain, with food insecurity still high and much uncertainty ahead.—Johan Swinnen, series co-editor and IFPRI Director General.
Updates for many countries have made it possible to estimate hunger in the world with greater accuracy this year. In particular, newly accessible data enabled the revision of the entire series of undernourishment estimates for China back to 2000, resulting in a substantial downward shift of the series of the number of undernourished in the world. Nevertheless, the revision confirms the trend reported in past editions: the number of people affected by hunger globally has been slowly on the rise since 2014. The report also shows that the burden of malnutrition in all its forms continues to be a challenge. There has been some progress for child stunting, low birthweight and exclusive breastfeeding, but at a pace that is still too slow. Childhood overweight is not improving and adult obesity is on the rise in all regions. The report complements the usual assessment of food security and nutrition with projections of what the world may look like in 2030, if trends of the last decade continue. Projections show that the world is not on track to achieve Zero Hunger by 2030 and, despite some progress, most indicators are also not on track to meet global nutrition targets. The food security and nutritional status of the most vulnerable population groups is likely to deteriorate further due to the health and socio economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The report puts a spotlight on diet quality as a critical link between food security and nutrition. Meeting SDG 2 targets will only be possible if people have enough food to eat and if what they are eating is nutritious and affordable. The report also introduces new analysis of the cost and affordability of healthy diets around the world, by region and in different development contexts. It presents valuations of the health and climate-change costs associated with current food consumption patterns, as well as the potential cost savings if food consumption patterns were to shift towards healthy diets that include sustainability considerations. The report then concludes with a discussion of the policies and strategies to transform food systems to ensure affordable healthy diets, as part of the required efforts to end both hunger and all forms of malnutrition.
[行业报告] Effects of public expenditures on agriculture at subnational levels on households’ welfare and economic resilience in Nigeria 进入全文
Agricultural development has long been considered an important driver of overall economic development in developing countries such as Nigeria. Whether increasing public expenditures on agriculture (PEA) can directly improve broad dimensions of household well-being has continued to be debated. In addition, there has been growing interest in the economic flexibility of households to switch between nonfarm and farming activities. Such flexibility can potentially enhance the resilience of households to shocks like the COVID-19 pandemic in today’s rapidly changing socioeconomic environments. Direct evidence of the impact of PEA on broad development outcomes is also important in informing regional initiatives aiming to use PEA as an instrument for overall food security enhancement and poverty reduction in Africa. Using state- and local government area (LGA)-level PEA figures and household data in Nigeria, this study aims to provide initial evidence at the household level in Nigeria. The findings suggest that greater PEA shares have positive effects on various development outcomes at the household level, including consumption, poverty reduction, nonfarm capital investments, and household dietary diversity. The findings also suggest that greater PEA shares are likely to help farm households enhance their economic flexibility. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses of positive linkages between PEA and agricultural outcomes, and linkages between agricultural and nonagricultural outcomes, often advocated in the literature. PEA should be increased by increasing its share of total public expenditures through conscious efforts to reallocate existing resources, rather than trying to increase it by increasing the overall size of public expenditures. Furthermore, it remains important to identify the appropriate sources (for example, spending by LGA or state) and types of PEA (for example, recurrent or capital spending) for particular development outcomes.
The 2019 U.S. Agricultural Export Yearbook provides a statistical summary of U.S. agricultural commodity exports to the world and the United States’ primary trading partners. The Yearbook is produced by USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS). All U.S. export data found within the Yearbook was collected and published by the U.S. Census Bureau of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Foreign country export data was sourced from the reporting countries’ national statistical agencies as reported through Trade Data Monitor (TDM). The 2019 U.S. Agricultural Export Yearbook consists of two sections: 1) Commodity exports, and 2) Country destination exports. The Yearbook utilizes FAS Product Groups that can be found at FAS’ Global Agricultural Trade System (GATS) located at https://apps.fas.usda.gov/gats/. The product groups are defined using the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) at the ten-digit level and aggregated into classifications that include the primary commodity and its derivatives. FAS has titled these product groups as “BICO (HS-10).” BICO is an FAS designation that stands for Bulk, Intermediate & Consumer Oriented goods. The bulk commodity groups, such as corn, wheat and rice are aggregations of very few HTS codes. For example, the soybeans product group includes only two HTS codes; and cotton includes only five codes; while the Beef and Beef Product category incorporates 26 HTS lines; Dairy Products includes 46 HTS lines; and Fresh Vegetables includes 70 HTS codes. The 14 product groups or commodity aggregations, displayed in the Yearbook, are based on the United States’ largest export categories. Ethanol is not considered an agricultural product according to the USDA definition of agriculture, and its export value is not included in the total value of U.S. agricultural exports ($136.7 billion). However, a Yearbook page on ethanol has been included in this publication because of the large value of its exports and its importance to the agricultural community and rural America. The top 13 export product groups (not including ethanol) accounts for nearly 65 percent of total U.S. agricultural products exported in 2019. The country Yearbook pages include the United States’ top fifteen export destinations as well as a page for the United Kingdom (UK). The European Union (EU-28), a customs union comprised of 28 member states, is included as a single trading partner. The only exception is that the UK has its own Yearbook page given the importance of their withdrawal from the EU-28 and ongoing negotiations toward a U.S. – UK free trade agreement. The top fourteen export markets represent 78 percent of total U.S. agricultural exports in 2019. Questions or comments about The 2019 U.S. Agricultural Export Yearbook can be directed to USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service (email@example.com) (202-720-1335).
Despite a major production setback in the EU, global wheat output in 2020 is forecast to remain close to last year’s above-average level while world maize production is heading to a record, leading to a sharp increase in maize inventories. With rice production also bound for a record and soybeans making a strong recovery, prospects for all four AMIS crops indicate a generally comfortable global supply situation. However, in many parts of the world, local markets brace for the looming impacts of COVID-19, amid uncertainties related to demand, logistics and even access to food.
The agri-food sector is moving into an era of digitally enhanced farming, where data is generated during the various stages of agricultural production and all related operations. This data is collected, transferred, processed and analysed. The farmer remains at the heart of the collection, processing and management of agricultural data. Collaborative agri-business models, including agri-cooperatives, collective shared services and other agri-businesses play a key role in ensuring that datadriven strategies add value to the agri-food chain. They can also facilitate collective services, be helpful in negotiating fair contracts and facilitate the implementation of the contracts. Data has become valuable and many experts consider BIG DATA to be the next major driver for productivity gains in agriculture. However, data analytics involve much more than simply putting information into expert hands; they are about enhancing knowledge in close collaboration with data originators and generating benefits within the value chain. Digital farming represents an unprecedented opportunity to create value and business opportunities by applying data-driven solutions: „ To improve resource efficiency, productivity, environmental processes, animal health and welfare and provide tools to mitigate climate change „ To adapt business plans, respond to dynamic markets and consumer expectations „ To decrease administrative and bureaucratic costs and enable sciencebased policies To provide better and more prosperous living conditions for rural communities Digital farming makes the collection and exchange of data possible at an unprecedented level. In order to tap into all of the potential benefits, data sharing between different stakeholders must be conducted under fair and transparent rules. The increasing exchange of data poses a major challenge for the EU agri-food sector. It raises questions about privacy, data protection, intellectual property, data attribution (sometimes referred to as ownership), relationships of trust/ power, storage, conservation, usability and security. The nature of agricultural data is highly specific but very diverse. The collection of agricultural data includes, among others, livestock and fish data, land and agronomic data, climate data, machine data, financial data and compliance data. Some of this data may be considered to be personal data, sensitive data or be seen as confidential information from the point of view of many agro-businesses providing services/ equipment for farm activities. Agricultural data is therefore of economic importance for both farmers and the entire value chain and it is essential that the necessary safeguards are built in. Theoretically, usage rights can be granted to an infinite number of parties, which reflects the non-physical nature of data. Due to this nonphysical nature, it is difficult to monitor who is authorised to share data and what data is shared. Unintentional and uninformed sharing of data can disadvantage the data originators and the value chain (e.g. misuse of sensitive data, unfair trading practices, breach of the legitimate IP right). This makes data originators, for instance, farmers, breeding companies, contractors, etc., cautious about sharing their data. There is a common political view that assumes that increasing data sharing is only possible by making it mandatory, due to the originators’ unwillingness to share data. The opposite is true: farmers and agri-businesses are more than willing to share data with each other and engage in a more open data mind-set. However, they will only do so if the potential benefits and risks are made clear and when they can trust that these are settled in a proper and fair way through contractual agreements. It is therefore crucial to define key principles on data rights, be they proprietary or similar rights, access rights and/or data re-use rights. Transparency and responsibility are key to gaining trust. If such principles are established and followed, then it will be possible to construct business models that benefit all stakeholders involved. Given that technology and digital tools will continue to evolve, it is fundamental for all parties involved to engage in dialogue on the opportunities and challenges of data sharing. This code predominantly focusses on nonpersonal data. Nevertheless, if data is linked to a person who is identifiable through a contract, land register, coordinates, etc., it is considered as personal data and falls under the General Data Protection Regulation. We hope that this explanation will advise stakeholders on the main principles related to the rights and obligations of using and sharing data. This will ensure that stakeholders are confident that data is secure and handled in an appropriate manner as well as facilitate data-driven business models. Compliance with the code of conduct is voluntary. The signatories therefore encourage all parties involved in the agri-food chain to conform according to these jointly agreed principles.