Plants employ numerous cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors to perceive a variety of immunogenic signals associated with pathogen infection and subsequently activate defenses. Immune signaling is potentiated by the major defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), which reprograms the transcriptome for defense. Here we highlight recent advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying activation of the main classes of immune receptors, summarize the current understanding of their signaling mechanisms, and discuss an updated model for SA perception and signaling. In addition, we discuss how different receptors are organized into networks and the implications of such networks in the integration of complex danger signals for appropriate defense outputs.
[学术文献] Substrate-Borne Vibrational Communication in the Vector of Apple Proliferation Disease Cacopsylla picta (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) 进入全文
Journal of Economic Entomology 期刊
Cacopsylla picta (Förster, 1848) (Hemiptera: Pysllidae) is the main vector of apple proliferation, a phytoplasma-caused disease. It represents one of the most severe problems in apple orchards, and therefore, there is a mandatory requirement to chemically treat against this pest in the European Union. Sexual communication using substrate-borne vibrations was demonstrated in several psyllid species. Here, we report the characteristics of the vibrational signals emitted by C. picta during courtship behavior.The pair formation process can be divided into two main phases: identification and courtship. Females initiate the communication on the host plant by emitting trains of vibrational pulses and, during courtship, if males reply, by emitting a signal consisting of a series of pre-pulses and a ‘buzz’, a duet is established. Moreover, a scanning electron microscopy investigation showed the presence of a stridulatory structure on the thorax and wings of both sexes, whereas the video recordings elucidated associated wing movement.The results provide new information about the biology of this phytoplasma vector and could form a basis of an environmentally friendly pest management strategy.
[学术文献] Dissecting plant hormone signaling with synthetic molecules: perspective from the chemists 进入全文
Current Opinion in Plant Biology 期刊
Synthetic molecules can be powerful tools to overcome the limitations of the biological approaches. Especially redundancy, lethality, and intractability of the target genes, which often hamper the progress of plant science, could be bypassed by elaborately designed small molecules. In this review, we discuss how synthetic chemistry can contribute to increasing our understanding of plant hormone signaling. Specific focus will be on the visualization and hijacking of hormone signaling with novel synthetic chemicals, with emphasis on perception of ABA, strigolactones, and auxins.
The present review summarizes current knowledge of the biosynthesis and biological importance of isoprenoid-derived plant signaling compounds. Cellular organisms use chemical signals for intercellular communication to coordinate their growth, development, and responses to environmental cues. The skeletons of majority of plant signaling molecules, mediators of plant intercellular ‘broadcasting’, are built from C5 units of isoprene and therefore belong to a huge and diverse group of natural substances called isoprenoids (terpenoids). They fill many important roles in nature. This review summarizes current knowledge of the biosynthesis and biological importance of a group of isoprenoid-derived plant signaling compounds.
该书着重介绍了植物激素调节的引发植物固有免疫力领域的最新突破。它描述了基因启动中用于信息存储的组蛋白记忆，启动中染色质重塑，基因启动中组蛋白修饰，跨代SAR中的DNA甲基化，移动信号复合体，膜信号受体复合体，介体复合体，JA响应启动子中的GCC基序，JAZ蛋白，JAZ-COI1复合物，在JAZ支架中组装NINJA-IPL核心加压复合物，在JA介导的信号中组蛋白乙酰化，激素和小RNA信号系统之间的串扰，PYR / PYL / RCAR-PP2C-SnRK2信号复合物，气孔关闭免疫应答，阻断发病机理的激素信号传导途径，激素信号传导途径中的泛素-蛋白酶体，磷酸化信号传导系统，DELLA蛋白和PAMP-PRR-激素信号传导相互作用。作者解释了复杂的激素信号传递网络，提供了100多幅图片，阐明了不同的植物激素生物合成途径及其信号转导途径。
A gene expression system for controllable expression of ethylene response in a plant cell includes an activation cassette comprising a DNA-binding domain that recognizes a response element; an ecdysone receptor ligand binding domain; and an activation domain; and a target cassette comprising an inducible promoter, which comprises, in operative association, the response element and a minimal promoter responsive to the activation domain. The inducible promoter controls the expression of a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a selected regulatory protein that modifies sensitivity to ethylene of certain signal proteins in the plant. Interaction among the components of the activation cassette and target cassette, when in a plant cell, in the presence of an inducing composition, increases expression of the selected regulatory protein, and in turn decreases expression and accumulation of the signal protein in the plant, thereby and decreasing ethylene sensitivity in the plant cell. This increase in the expression of the regulatory protein, particularly in the presence of ethylene, is controlled by the timing, the concentration and the duration of the application of the inducing composition. Transgenic plant cells, tissues, organs and entire plants are provided, which in the presence of the inducing composition control ethylene sensitivity. Ethylene sensitivity and/or ethylene production in such transgenic plants and tissues may be controlled for purposes of manipulating ripening, flower senescence and other ethylene sensitive functions of the plant.