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[前沿资讯] 农业农村部部署推进畜禽粪污资源化利用项目 进入全文

农业农村部新闻办公室

7月2日,农业农村部召开加快推进畜禽粪污资源化利用项目实施视频会议,通报畜禽粪污资源化利用项目开工情况,进一步明确畜禽粪污资源化利用项目实施要求,对畜禽粪污资源化利用工作进行再动员再部署。农业农村部副部长于康震出席会议并讲话。   会议指出,畜禽粪污资源化利用整县推进项目自实施以来,已经实现畜牧大县全覆盖,为加快推进畜禽粪污资源化利用发挥了重要支撑作用。各地要切实提高政治站位,增强责任感紧迫感,准确把握项目推进要求,切实加快项目实施进度,组织开展项目绩效评价,确保中央资金使用安全,多措并举加力推进项目尽快落地见效,通过项目示范带动打通畜禽粪污资源化利用路径。   会议强调,要牢固树立目标导向,加大工作力度,确保高质量如期完成畜禽粪污资源化利用目标任务。狠抓粪污处理设施配套,逐步提高规模养殖场设施装备水平。狠抓畜禽粪肥还田利用,发展培育粪肥施用社会化服务组织,促进粪肥低成本就地就近还田。狠抓日常监督管理,强化直联直报系统数据填报和审核,加强对粪肥还田适用标准和利用过程管理。狠抓典型宣传引导,总结典型经验和案例,开展多种形式的推介活动。 农业农村部总畜牧师马有祥主持会议,国家首席兽医师李金祥出席会议。

[学术文献] 牛至油替代抗生素和氧化锌对仔猪生长性能、腹泻频率、肠道形态和血浆抗氧化指标的影响 进入全文

中国知网

摘要:本试验旨在研究牛至油替代抗生素和氧化锌对断奶仔猪生长性能、腹泻频率、肠道形态和血浆抗氧化指标的影响。选取48头(21±1)日龄的健康“杜×长×大”断奶仔猪,按体重一致的原则随机分为2组,分别为抗生素组、牛至油组,每组6个重复,每个重复4头猪。抗生素组在基础饲粮中添加氧化锌和抗生素混合物,牛至油组在基础饲粮中添加牛至油。试验期为28 d。结果表明:牛至油替代抗生素和氧化锌显著提高了仔猪断奶后第1~14天的腹泻频率(P <0.05),但对仔猪断奶后第1~14天、第15~28天和第1~28天的平均日增重、平均日采食量、料重比均没有产生显著影响(P>0.05),并使断奶后第1~14天的平均日增重提高9.6%,平均日采食量提高5.5%。牛至油替代抗生素和氧化锌对断奶仔猪十二指肠、空肠、回肠形态均没有产生显著影响(P> 0. 05)。牛至油替代抗生素和氧化锌使断奶后第15天血浆超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)显著提高(P<0.05)。上述结果提示,在本试验条件下,牛至油替代抗生素和氧化锌会显著提高仔猪断奶后第1~14天的腹泻频率,但对整个试验期内的腹泻频率和生长性能没有显著影响,同时还可提高机体的抗氧化性能。

[学术文献] 不同工艺处理的五倍子替代氧化锌对仔猪生长性能、养分表观消化率、盲肠微生物区系及腹泻率的影响 进入全文

中国知网

摘要:本试验旨在研究不同工艺处理的五倍子替代氧化锌对仔猪生长性能、养分表观消化率、盲肠微生物区系及腹泻率的影响。试验选取195头平均体重为(9.97±0.04) kg的“杜×长×大”仔猪,随机分为5个组,每组3个重复,每个重复13头仔猪,公、母仔猪均匀分配到各组的各个重复中。5个组分别为对照组(基础饲粮+2 092 mg/kg氧化锌,锌添加量为1 600 mg/kg)、五倍子粉(GP)组(基础饲粮+852 mg/kg GP)、五倍子粉水解单宁酸提取物(HGT)组(基础饲粮+649 mg/kg HGT)、包被五倍子粉(C-GP)组(基础饲粮+1 970 mg/kg C-GP)、包被五倍子粉水解单宁酸提取物(C-HGT)组(基础饲粮+1 974 mg/kg C-HGT),4个试验组五倍子水解单宁酸添加量均为600 mg/kg。预试期7 d,正试期25 d。结果显示:1)各组间末均重、平均日采食量、平均日增重、料重比均无显著差异(P>0.05)。2)与对照组相比,4个试验组腹泻率有升高的趋势(P=0.076)。3) HGT组与C-HGT组的粗蛋白质表观消化率极显著高于对照组、GP组和C-GP组(P<0.01); HGT组和C-HGT组的粗脂肪表观消化率与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05),而GP组和C-GP组的粗脂肪表观消化率则显著低于对照组以及HGT组和C-HGT组(P<0.05)。4)与对照组相比,4个试验组盲肠中粪杆菌属的丰度均有所提高。综上,以不同工艺处理的五倍子替代饲粮中的氧化锌后仔猪的生长性能未产生显著变化,但腹泻率有所升高;经提取工艺处理的五倍子(HGT、C-HGT)替代饲粮中的氧化锌可显著提高仔猪饲粮的粗蛋白质表观消化率,而未经提取工艺处理的五倍子(GP、C-GP)则会显著降低仔猪饲粮的粗脂肪表观消化率;不同工艺处理的五倍子替代饲粮中的氧化锌后仔猪盲肠中粪杆菌属丰度有所升高。

[学术文献] Effects of dietary Hermetia illucens meal inclusion on cecal microbiota and small intestinal mucin dynamics and infiltration with immune cells of weaned piglets 进入全文

SpringerLink

Abstract Background The constant interaction between diet and intestinal barrier has a crucial role in determining gut health in pigs. Hermetia illucens (HI) meal (that represents a promising, alternative feed ingredient for production animals) has recently been demonstrated to influence colonic microbiota, bacterial metabolite profile and mucosal immune status of pigs, but no data about modulation of gut mucin dynamics are currently available. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary HI meal inclusion on the small intestinal mucin composition of piglets, as well as providing insights into the cecal microbiota and the mucosal infiltration with immune cells. Results A total of 48 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments (control diet [C] and 5% or 10% HI meal inclusion [HI5 and HI10], with 4 replicate boxes/treatment and 4 animals/box) and slaughtered after 61 days of trial (3 animals/box, 12 piglets/diet). The cecal microbiota assessment by 16S rRNA amplicon based sequencing showed higher beta diversity in the piglets fed the HI-based diets than the C (P <  0.001). Furthermore, the HI-fed animals showed increased abundance of Blautia, Chlamydia, Coprococcus, Eubacterium, Prevotella, Roseburia, unclassified members of Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcus and Staphylococcus when compared to the C group (FDR <  0.05). The gut of the piglets fed the HI-based diets showed greater neutral mucin percentage than the C (P <  0.05), with the intestinal neutral mucins of the HI-fed animals being also higher than the sialomucins and the sulfomucins found in the gut of the C group (P <  0.05). Furthermore, the piglets fed the HI-based diets displayed lower histological scores in the jejunum than the other gut segments (ileum [HI5] or ileum and duodenum [HI10], P <  0.05). Conclusions Dietary HI meal utilization positively influenced the cecal microbiota and the small intestinal mucin dynamics of the piglets in terms of selection of potentially beneficial bacteria and preservation of mature mucin secretory architecture, without determining the development of gut inflammation. These findings further confirm the suitability of including insect meal in swine diets.

[学术文献] Early-life lactoferrin intervention modulates the colonic microbiota, colonic microbial metabolites and intestinal function in suckling piglets 进入全文

SpringerLink

Abstract This study reports the effects of early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on the colonic microbiota, intestinal function and mucosal immunity in suckling piglets. A total of 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire suckling piglets from six sows were assigned to the control (CON) and LF groups in litters. The LF group piglets were fed 0.5 g/kg body weight of LF solution per day, and the CON group piglets were fed the same dose of physiological saline for a week. Six piglets from the two groups were randomly chosen and euthanised on days 8 and 21. The LF group piglets had higher ACE and Chao1 indices of colonic microbiota than the CON group piglets (P < 0.05). In addition, the LF group piglets had a higher abundance of Roseburia (P < 0.05) and a lower abundance of Escherichia–Shigella (P < 0.05) in the colonic digesta. The LF group piglets also had a higher concentration of butyrate (P < 0.05) in the colonic digesta. Moreover, the LF group piglets had a higher gene expression of occludin (P < 0.05) in the colonic mucosa. In addition, the gene expression of MUC4 was upregulated in the LF group piglets compared with that in the CON group on day 21 (P < 0.05), and the lower gene expression of TLR-4 was found in the LF group compared with the CON group on day 8 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the concentration of IL-10 was increased in the LF group on day 8 (P < 0.05), while the LF group piglets had a higher concentration of sIgA and lower concentrations of IL-1α and IL-1β (P < 0.05) in the colonic mucosa. These results suggest that early-life LF intervention can modulate the composition of colonic microbiota and improve the intestinal function in suckling piglets.

[学术文献] Effects of Macleaya cordata extract on small intestinal morphology and gastrointestinal microbiota diversity of weaned pigs 进入全文

Science Direct

To investigate the effects ofMacleaya cordataextract (MCE) on the gut morphology and microbiota, a total of 90weaned pigs at 35 days of age were allocated to one of two treatments:CONgroup, fed with basal diet; orMCEgroup, fed with basal diet supplemented with 50 mg MCE/kg diet. After continuous administration for 28 days,six pigs per group were selected and euthanized to collect the tissues and chyme or digesta samples of sevengastrointestinal (GI) locations for sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. An interaction between diet and GI locationwas found in villus height/crypt depth (VH/CD) ratio (P= 0.011). MCE increased VH (310 vs. 278μm;P= 0.048) and VH/CD ratio (1.108 vs. 0.928;P= 0.007) in the ileum but had a tendency to decrease VH/CD(1.044 vs. 1.153;P= 0.088) in the duodenum. Both diet (P= 0.014) and GI location (P= 0.002) influenced thegut microbial composition. MCE increased Simpson and Shannon indexes in the jejunum (P< 0.01) and stomach(P< 0.001). At the genus level, MCE increased (P< 0.05) the relative abundance ofp-75-a5in the cecum andcolon,Oscillospirain the jejunum, andLachnospirain the cecum and colon. Especially, the relative abundance ofLactobacillusin the MCE group was considerably decreased in the duodenum (1.23% vs. 49.17%;P= 0.020),jejunum (5.32% vs. 52.71%;P= 0.006) and ileum (1.08% vs. 5.30%;P= 0.004). MCE decreased the raw copynumber ofLactobacillusin the colon (9.66 vs. 10.71;P= 0.047) and a tendency to decrease in the jejunum(8.91 vs. 10.08;P= 0.068). These results evaluated the effects of MCE supplementation on intestinal mor-phology and microbiota diversity at different GI locations in weaned pigs, which provides valuable informationfor the development of MCE additives

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