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[学术文献] 饲粮添加异亮氨酸对轮状病毒攻毒断奶仔猪回肠屏障功能的影响 进入全文

中国知网

本研究旨在探讨饲粮添加异亮氨酸是否可以缓解轮状病毒(RV)感染对断奶仔猪回肠屏障功能的影响。在细胞试验中,用8 mmol/L的L-异亮氨酸处理IPEC-J2细胞24 h;在动物饲养试验中,选取28头健康的21日龄断奶的“杜×长×大”仔猪,采用2×2双因子设计,即饲粮处理(添加1%L-异亮氨酸饲粮或添加0.68%L-丙氨酸饲粮)和RV攻毒(灌服RV或无菌培养液),RV攻毒于试验第15天早上进行。试验期为18 d。结果表明,L-异亮氨酸处理提高了IPEC-J2细胞中黏液蛋白2(mucin 2)、闭锁小带蛋白-1(ZO-1)和闭合蛋白(occludin)的mRNA相对表达量(P <0.05); RV攻毒提高了断奶仔猪平均腹泻指数和血清二胺氧化酶活性(P<0.05),提高了回肠黏膜中RV的非结构蛋白4阳性率,降低了断奶仔猪回肠黏膜中mucin 2、ZO-1和occludin mRNA相对表达量(P<0.05);而饲粮添加异亮氨酸缓解了RV攻毒对断奶仔猪平均腹泻指数、血清二胺氧化酶活性和回肠黏膜mucin 2、ZO-1和occludin mRNA相对表达量的影响(P<0.05),降低了回肠黏膜中RV的非结构蛋白4阳性率。综上所述,在断奶仔猪的饲粮中补充1%异亮氨酸可以预防RV诱导发生的腹泻,而这一作用与其可改善回肠屏障功能有关。

[学术文献] 烟酸调节动物肠道黏膜屏障功能的分子机制 进入全文

中国知网

作为一种重要的维生素,烟酸在抑制肠道炎症反应及维持肠道健康等方面发挥重要作用。研究表明,烟酸可以直接结合烟酸受体G蛋白偶联受体109A (GPR109A)发挥其生理作用,还能够以辅酶烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸(NAD~+)的形式参与细胞能量代谢。本文主要阐述了烟酸维护肠道黏膜屏障功能的作用机制,为维护断奶仔猪肠道健康提供科学理论依据。

[学术文献] Inter-correlated gut microbiota and SCFAs changes upon antibiotics exposure links with rapid body-mass gain in weaned piglet model 进入全文

中国知网

The risk of overweight or obesity in association with early exposure of antibiotics remains an important public issue for health-care of children. Low-dose antibiotics (LDA) have been widely used to enhance growth rate of pigs, providing a good animal model to study the underlying mechanism. In present study, 28 female piglets, weaned at 21 d, were randomly classified into two groups, receiving either a control diet or a diet supplemented with LDA for 4 weeks. The total bacterial load and intestinal microbiota were determined by qPCR and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. UPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS and RNA-seq were further used to determine the colonic SCFAs and transcriptomes. Results showed that LDA significantly increased growth rate and food intake. The F/B index, Methanosphaera species, and the pathway of “carbohydrate metabolism” were improved by LDA exposure, indicating the better carbohydrate degradation and energy utilization. Furthermore, correlation analysis indicated the microbial community contributing to SCFAs production was enriched upon LDA exposure, associating with increased concentrations of short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids (caproate, 2-methyl butyrate and 4-methyl valerate). A multivariate linear fitting model analysis highlighted that caproate was positively correlated with two genera ( Faecalibacterium and Allisonella ) and four differentially expressed genes ( ZNF134 , TBX5 , NEU4 and SEMA6D ), which were all significantly increased upon LDA exposure. Collectively, our study indicates that the growth-promoting effect of LDA exposure in early life is associated with the shifts of colonic microbiota to increase utilization of carbohydrates and energy, enhanced SCFAs production and colonic functions.

[学术文献] Yeasts of Burden: Exploring the Mycobiome-Bacteriome of the Piglet GI Tract 进入全文

中国知网

Interactions between the bacteria and fungi in the gut microbiome can result in altered nutrition, pathogenicity of infection, and host development, making them a crucial component in host health. Associations between the mycobiome and bacteriome in the piglet gut, in the context of weaning, remain unknown. Weaning is a time of significant stress, dietary changes, microbial alterations, and a predisposition to infection. The loss of animal health and growth makes potential microbial interventions of interest to the swine industry. Recent studies have demonstrated the diversity and development of the microbiome in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of piglets during weaning, resulting from the dietary and physiological changes. Despite these advances, the role of the mycobiota in piglet health and its contribution to overall microbiome development remains mostly unknown. In this study we investigated the bacteriome and the mycobiome after weaning in the GI tract organs and feces from 35-day old piglets. Following weaning, the α-diversity and amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) counts of the bacteriome increased, proximally to distally, from the stomach to the feces along the GI tract, while the mycobiome α-diversity and ASV counts were highest in the porcine stomach. β-diversity analyses show distinct clusters based on organ type in the bacteriome and mycobiome, but dispersion remained relatively constant in the mycobiome between organ/fecal sites. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Epsilonbacteraeota were the most abundant bacterial phyla present in the GI tract and feces based on mean taxonomic composition with high variation of composition found in the stomach. In the mycobiome, the dominant phyla were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and the stomach mycobiome did not demonstrate the same high level of variation observed in the bacteriome. Potential interactions between genera were found in the lower piglet GI bacteriome and mycobiome with positive correlations found between the fungus, Kazachstania , and several bacterial species, including Lactobacillus . Aspergillus demonstrated negative correlations with the short chain fatty acid-producing bacteria Butyricoccus , Subdoligranulum , and Fusicatenibacter . This study demonstrates the distinct colonization dynamics between fungi and bacteria in the GI tract and feces of piglets directly following weaning and the potential interactions of these microbes in the porcine gut ecosystem.

[前沿资讯] 欧美猪肉产量增加,带动全球猪肉贸易提升 进入全文

国际畜牧网

近日,由中国农业科学院海外农业研究中心、国际合作局和农业信息研究所主办的第三届海外农业研究大会,发布了2019年全球主要农产品市场研究报告,其中《猪肉世界供需形势分析》《中国猪肉进口对全球猪肉市场影响》专题报告,对全球生猪贸易格局及我国生猪产品进出口情况进行了深入分析。欧美猪肉产量增加带动全球贸易量提升超10%。研究报告显示,2019年全球猪肉出口量预计940万吨,增加96万吨。欧盟生猪存栏稳定,美国等出口国生猪存栏增幅较大。欧盟短期内增量有限,猪价上涨带动2020年猪肉产量和出口增加。美国猪肉产量保持较快增长态势。受能繁母猪产能减少和环境限制生产,欧盟2019年猪肉产量预计为2379万吨,较稳定,2020年猪肉贸易提升和猪价上涨将带动欧盟猪肉生产将适度增长(1.4%左右),预计增量在35万吨左右。受近年猪肉出口增加影响,美国猪肉产量稳步增加,2019年和2020年猪肉产量预计分别为1253万吨和1289万吨,分别较2018年增加60万吨和95万吨。加拿大2019年猪肉产量预计为195万吨,稳中略增、增幅有限,猪肉出口增量在10万吨以内。巴西受出口拉动影响,2019年猪肉产量398万吨,预计增加20万吨,增量将绝大部分出口。阿根廷和智利产量较小,预计出口增量合计在10万吨以内。

[前沿资讯] Annual EUSR Reports on Zoonoses and Food-borne Outbreaks and Antimicrobial Resistance. Customer feedback – final report 进入全文

ESFA官网

EFSA monitors the occurrence of food-borne zoonoses, zoonotic agents and antimicrobial resistance in humans, animals and food in collaboration with the ECDC as defined in the Zoonoses Directive 2003/99/EC. As part of this responsibility, EFSA annually publishes two European Summary Reports (EUSRs) assessing the trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks (zoonoses) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in zoonotic agents. This report brings together feedback from EFSA’s stakeholders and customers on the efficacy, efficiency, relevance, added value, coherence and timeliness of the annual EUSR on zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks and of the annual EUSR on antimicrobial resistance in collecting data and supporting informed risk assessment and risk management.

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