您的位置: 首页 > 院士专题 > 专题列表

共检索到1262条,权限内显示50条;

[学术文献] 不同工艺处理的五倍子替代氧化锌对仔猪生长性能、养分表观消化率、盲肠微生物区系及腹泻率的影响 进入全文

中国知网

摘要:本试验旨在研究不同工艺处理的五倍子替代氧化锌对仔猪生长性能、养分表观消化率、盲肠微生物区系及腹泻率的影响。试验选取195头平均体重为(9.97±0.04) kg的“杜×长×大”仔猪,随机分为5个组,每组3个重复,每个重复13头仔猪,公、母仔猪均匀分配到各组的各个重复中。5个组分别为对照组(基础饲粮+2 092 mg/kg氧化锌,锌添加量为1 600 mg/kg)、五倍子粉(GP)组(基础饲粮+852 mg/kg GP)、五倍子粉水解单宁酸提取物(HGT)组(基础饲粮+649 mg/kg HGT)、包被五倍子粉(C-GP)组(基础饲粮+1 970 mg/kg C-GP)、包被五倍子粉水解单宁酸提取物(C-HGT)组(基础饲粮+1 974 mg/kg C-HGT),4个试验组五倍子水解单宁酸添加量均为600 mg/kg。预试期7 d,正试期25 d。结果显示:1)各组间末均重、平均日采食量、平均日增重、料重比均无显著差异(P>0.05)。2)与对照组相比,4个试验组腹泻率有升高的趋势(P=0.076)。3) HGT组与C-HGT组的粗蛋白质表观消化率极显著高于对照组、GP组和C-GP组(P<0.01); HGT组和C-HGT组的粗脂肪表观消化率与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05),而GP组和C-GP组的粗脂肪表观消化率则显著低于对照组以及HGT组和C-HGT组(P<0.05)。4)与对照组相比,4个试验组盲肠中粪杆菌属的丰度均有所提高。综上,以不同工艺处理的五倍子替代饲粮中的氧化锌后仔猪的生长性能未产生显著变化,但腹泻率有所升高;经提取工艺处理的五倍子(HGT、C-HGT)替代饲粮中的氧化锌可显著提高仔猪饲粮的粗蛋白质表观消化率,而未经提取工艺处理的五倍子(GP、C-GP)则会显著降低仔猪饲粮的粗脂肪表观消化率;不同工艺处理的五倍子替代饲粮中的氧化锌后仔猪盲肠中粪杆菌属丰度有所升高。

[学术文献] Effects of dietary Hermetia illucens meal inclusion on cecal microbiota and small intestinal mucin dynamics and infiltration with immune cells of weaned piglets 进入全文

SpringerLink

Abstract Background The constant interaction between diet and intestinal barrier has a crucial role in determining gut health in pigs. Hermetia illucens (HI) meal (that represents a promising, alternative feed ingredient for production animals) has recently been demonstrated to influence colonic microbiota, bacterial metabolite profile and mucosal immune status of pigs, but no data about modulation of gut mucin dynamics are currently available. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary HI meal inclusion on the small intestinal mucin composition of piglets, as well as providing insights into the cecal microbiota and the mucosal infiltration with immune cells. Results A total of 48 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments (control diet [C] and 5% or 10% HI meal inclusion [HI5 and HI10], with 4 replicate boxes/treatment and 4 animals/box) and slaughtered after 61 days of trial (3 animals/box, 12 piglets/diet). The cecal microbiota assessment by 16S rRNA amplicon based sequencing showed higher beta diversity in the piglets fed the HI-based diets than the C (P <  0.001). Furthermore, the HI-fed animals showed increased abundance of Blautia, Chlamydia, Coprococcus, Eubacterium, Prevotella, Roseburia, unclassified members of Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcus and Staphylococcus when compared to the C group (FDR <  0.05). The gut of the piglets fed the HI-based diets showed greater neutral mucin percentage than the C (P <  0.05), with the intestinal neutral mucins of the HI-fed animals being also higher than the sialomucins and the sulfomucins found in the gut of the C group (P <  0.05). Furthermore, the piglets fed the HI-based diets displayed lower histological scores in the jejunum than the other gut segments (ileum [HI5] or ileum and duodenum [HI10], P <  0.05). Conclusions Dietary HI meal utilization positively influenced the cecal microbiota and the small intestinal mucin dynamics of the piglets in terms of selection of potentially beneficial bacteria and preservation of mature mucin secretory architecture, without determining the development of gut inflammation. These findings further confirm the suitability of including insect meal in swine diets.

[学术文献] Effects of Macleaya cordata extract on small intestinal morphology and gastrointestinal microbiota diversity of weaned pigs 进入全文

Science Direct

To investigate the effects ofMacleaya cordataextract (MCE) on the gut morphology and microbiota, a total of 90weaned pigs at 35 days of age were allocated to one of two treatments:CONgroup, fed with basal diet; orMCEgroup, fed with basal diet supplemented with 50 mg MCE/kg diet. After continuous administration for 28 days,six pigs per group were selected and euthanized to collect the tissues and chyme or digesta samples of sevengastrointestinal (GI) locations for sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. An interaction between diet and GI locationwas found in villus height/crypt depth (VH/CD) ratio (P= 0.011). MCE increased VH (310 vs. 278μm;P= 0.048) and VH/CD ratio (1.108 vs. 0.928;P= 0.007) in the ileum but had a tendency to decrease VH/CD(1.044 vs. 1.153;P= 0.088) in the duodenum. Both diet (P= 0.014) and GI location (P= 0.002) influenced thegut microbial composition. MCE increased Simpson and Shannon indexes in the jejunum (P< 0.01) and stomach(P< 0.001). At the genus level, MCE increased (P< 0.05) the relative abundance ofp-75-a5in the cecum andcolon,Oscillospirain the jejunum, andLachnospirain the cecum and colon. Especially, the relative abundance ofLactobacillusin the MCE group was considerably decreased in the duodenum (1.23% vs. 49.17%;P= 0.020),jejunum (5.32% vs. 52.71%;P= 0.006) and ileum (1.08% vs. 5.30%;P= 0.004). MCE decreased the raw copynumber ofLactobacillusin the colon (9.66 vs. 10.71;P= 0.047) and a tendency to decrease in the jejunum(8.91 vs. 10.08;P= 0.068). These results evaluated the effects of MCE supplementation on intestinal mor-phology and microbiota diversity at different GI locations in weaned pigs, which provides valuable informationfor the development of MCE additives

[前沿资讯] 农业农村部副部长于康震在《国家畜禽遗传资源目录》 贯彻实施视频推动会上的讲话 进入全文

中国畜牧信息网

同志们:经国务院批准,农业农村部今天正式公布《国家畜禽遗传资源目录》(简称《目录》),首次明确畜禽种类范围。这次会议的主要任务是统一思想认识,提高政治站位,通报《目录》制定情况,部署贯彻实施工作。刚才,广东省、吉林省和四川省分别做了典型发言,认识很深刻,措施很到位,针对性、借鉴性、建设性都很强。下面,我讲四点意见。第一,深刻认识《目录》公布的重大意义。(一)《目录》是贯彻落实党中央国务院决策部署和全国人大常委会《决定》的重要举措。1月27日,习近平总书记作出重要批示,深刻指出非法交易、滥食野生动物的突出问题及对公共卫生安全构成的重大隐患,明确提出完善相关立法、坚决取缔和严厉打击非法野生动物市场和贸易、革除滥食野生动物的陋习等要求。2月3日,习近平总书记在中央政治局常委会上明确指出,食用野生动物风险很大,但“野味产业”依然规模庞大,对公共卫生安全构成了重大隐患,再也不能无动于衷了!2月24日,全国人大常委会审议通过的《关于全面禁止非法野生动物交易、革除滥食野生动物陋习、切实保障人民群众生命健康安全的决定》(简称《决定》)第三条规定:“国务院畜牧兽医行政主管部门依法制定并公布畜禽遗传资源目录”。我部密集研究,加快推进《目录》制定工作,及时公布。这是坚决贯彻以习近平同志为核心的党中央决策部署的实际行动,是坚决贯彻实施《决定》,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的具体实践。

[前沿资讯] Keeping pigs cool when temperatures spike 进入全文

Pig Progress

John van Paassen, owner of a farrow-to-finish pig farm in Deurne, the Netherlands. The farm has capacity for 440 sows and 2,750 finisher pigs. The innovation:A high-pressure fogging system that reduces the temperature of incoming air by up to 8°C. Van Paassen had tubes with nozzles installed at the air inlets – which are powered by a high-pressure sprayer. The fog will cool down incoming air by up to 5%. Humidity levels can be adjusted for each pig house, as each type of pig thrives at different levels. The innovation won in the category ‘animal welfare – solutions for heat stress’. The idea:In the Netherlands, in July 2019, temperatures went up to 41°C, which can easily lead to heat stress and affect production. In the context of global warming, such high temperatures are unlikely to be a one-off. According to van Paassen, even a short spell of very hot days could basically destroy a good annual result. Since he has various differently sized buildings, he was looking for a simple system that could be used in all his pig houses. At van Paassen’s farm, the concept is an independent element of an overall climate control system, which also keeps temperatures constant in winter. The system works on the basis of a heat exchanger connected to the air scrubbers.

[学术文献] 单宁酸对生长猪胃—小肠仿生消化中消化酶活性及饲粮粗蛋白消化率的影响 进入全文

中国知网

本试验旨在探讨单宁酸对生长猪胃、小肠仿生消化中消化酶活性及玉米-豆粕型饲粮干物质和粗蛋白消化率的影响,为评价单宁酸的生物学效应提供参考。试验一采用单因素完全随机设计,考察在无饲粮下2种单宁酸对猪模拟胃液、模拟小肠液消化酶活性的影响。设5个处理,单宁酸添加量分别为0mg(胃液体积为20mL,小肠液体积为22mL);单宁酸1,10mg;单宁酸1,20mg;单宁酸2,10mg;单宁酸2,20mg。测定各处理的胃蛋白酶、淀粉酶、胰蛋白酶和糜蛋白酶的活性。试验二考察玉米-豆粕型饲粮添加单宁酸对猪仿生消化中胃、小肠阶段消化酶活性及养分消化率的影响。采用单因素完全随机设计,设5个处理,单宁酸在饲粮中的含量分别为0mg·(2g)-1;单宁酸1,10mg·(2g)-1;单宁酸1,20mg·(2g)-1;单宁酸2,10mg·(2g)-1;单宁酸2,20mg·(2g)-1。测定仿生消化中胃阶段0.5和4h时胃蛋白酶活性,小肠阶段0.5、4和8h时淀粉酶、胰蛋白酶和糜蛋白酶活性及生长猪胃-小肠仿生消化测定饲粮的干物质和粗蛋白消化率。结果表明:1)无饲粮的情况下,和空白对照组相比,2种单宁酸对模拟胃液中胃蛋白酶活性无显著影响(P>0.05),单宁酸1比单宁酸2更高地降低了模拟小肠液中淀粉酶、胰蛋白酶和糜蛋白酶的活性(P<0.05)。2)在饲粮进行仿生消化的胃消化0.5~4h内,除4h时10mg·(2g)-1添加量外,添加单宁酸1时胃蛋白酶的活性均显著高于添加单宁酸2时的相应值(P<0.05),除单宁酸2在消化0.5h外,2种单宁酸在添加10mg·(2g)-1时胃蛋白酶活性均显著高于20mg·(2g)-1添加量的相应值(P<0.05)。在小肠仿生消化0.5h时,饲粮中添加单宁酸1、2的2个水平对消化液中淀粉酶活性无显著影响(P>0.05),但均显著降低了糜蛋白酶的活性(P<0.05);单宁酸1的消化液中胰蛋白酶活性高于单宁酸2的相应值(P<0.05)。在小肠仿生消化4h时,除添加水平为20mg·(2g)-1时的糜蛋白酶活性外,饲粮中添加单宁酸1消化液中淀粉酶、糜蛋白酶活性高于添加单宁酸2的相应值,而胰蛋白酶活性低于添加单宁酸2的相应值(P<0.05)。单宁酸1、2的两个添加量均降低了胰蛋白酶和糜蛋白酶的活性(P<0.05)。在小肠仿生消化8h时,饲粮中单宁酸的添加量影响了淀粉酶的活性,但单宁酸1和单宁酸2各两个添加量在淀粉酶的平均活性上无显著差异(P>0.05)。单宁酸1、2的两个添加量均降低了胰蛋白酶、糜蛋白酶的活性(P<0.05)。3)与对照组相比,两种单宁酸在两种添加水平下均显著降低了饲料粗蛋白消化率(P<0.05),且单宁酸2比单宁酸1更多地降低了饲粮粗蛋白的消化率(P<0.05)。综上所述,在有、无饲粮条件下,单宁酸对消化酶活性呈现不一致影响。单宁酸影响饲粮粗蛋白的消化率可能主要与消化液中糜蛋白酶活性降低以及单宁酸与饲粮中的化学成分形成螯合物降低了小肠消化酶的水解效率有关。

热门相关

意 见 箱

匿名:登录

个人用户登录

找回密码

第三方账号登录

忘记密码

个人用户注册

必须为有效邮箱
6~16位数字与字母组合
6~16位数字与字母组合
请输入正确的手机号码

信息补充