When it comes to nifty farm gadgets and technology, there are many neat tools. Tractor guidance is definitely one of them, thanks to how it helps farmers better use their resources. Tractor guidance allows farmers to be more precise when using a tractor to perform tasks in the field. These tasks include planting, spraying herbicide, and applying fertilizer. But how does this precision turn into savings for a farmer? Amanda Ashworth of the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service and a team of researchers worked to find out. Their results point to benefits for small farms, many of which do not currently use this tool. "Precision agriculture technologies improved the on-farm efficiencies by up to 20% based on our work," Ashworth says. "There is a lot of room for more adoption of the technology on small farms. This would possibly lead to economic and environmental savings." A farmer in a tractor makes a series of passes across a field to plant seeds or spray chemicals. Anywhere there is overlap in these passes is inefficient because it's an unnecessary double application. In addition to overlap, gaps of the field not covered in passes are also bad. It's a missed opportunity to improve crop production. Tractor guidance uses GPS to help reduce these overlaps and gaps. It also allows researchers to track and record tractor movements. The researchers helped improve an existing calculation to best measure these overlaps and gaps. It particularly helped where the tractor turns around at the end of a row. The team's results suggest that tractor guidance reduces overlaps by up to 6% and gaps by up to 16%. Farmer's profits are made on small margins, so a small decrease in fertilizer costs, for example, can be very beneficial. Also, fertilizer that runs off a field can harm waterways, so being able to apply just the correct amount can benefit the environment. While many large crop producers use tractor guidance, they only make up about one fifth of farms in the United States. The rest are small farms. These smaller farms are often slower to learn about and adapt to these new technologies. All combined, increases in efficiencies with tractor guidance on small farms could result in saving U.S. producers more than $10 million. The precision tool has other benefits, too, such as letting drivers operate in low light to get more work done during the evening. "Not all agricultural areas receive information on technology at the same rate, so there is work to be done here," explains Ashworth. "The small farm systems have high potential for adoption, which would impact the greatest numbers of farms." The team's new method for calculating the benefits of tractor guidance can be easily used on many small fields to gather more data. Their hope is that it can help more famers learn about and adopt the tool since it can pay for itself - even on small farms. Next, the researchers want to understand how field slope and objects in the way, such as trees or ponds, affect tractor guidance. "Agriculture is moving toward using more technology for farm management decisions," Ashworth says. "We want to get a better understanding of current technology applications and how well they work. This will help us have a better idea of how to improve, develop, and integrate different components for improved production efficiency."
By introducing fluorescence protein sensors into live plants, a novel method that allows in planta measurement of NADPH level and NADH/NAD+ ratio in different cell types has been developed. These transgenic lines enable scientists to visualize the dynamic changes of these molecules in different subcellular compartments in real-time, to study photosynthesis and photorespiration. Plants harvest energy from the sun and use this to fix CO2 from the atmosphere to produce complex organic molecules which are the basis for life on the earth. The process of photosynthesis takes place in leaves and other green parts of the plant where chloroplasts are main players of the process but the whole cell is involved. In plants, the shift between respiratory metabolism in the dark and photosynthetic metabolism in the light makes redox control of metabolism particularly complex. For an efficient process the redox states of all cellular compartments must be coordinated but is has been very difficult to obtain In planta data on this important aspect. During C3 photosynthesis, for every 3 fixed CO2 molecules, about one O2 molecule is mistakenly fixed by Rubisco in chloroplasts. The recycling of the photorespiratory product involves reactions in both chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mitochondria. In connection to this it is commonly agreed that redox transfer between the compartments involved is important and that malate-OAA exchange contributes to this. However, the redox balance between the compartments is not well established and several suggestions can be found in the literature. To study this question, an international team of researchers led by Dr. Boon Leong Lim of the School of Biological Sciences of the University of Hong Kong adopted fluorescent protein sensors to specifically monitor in planta dynamic changes in NADPH and NADH/NAD+ ratio in young leaves. The redox states of chloroplasts, cytosol and peroxisomes could be followed during transitions between dark and light with an emphasis on interplay between photosynthesis and photorespiration. Conventional detection methods require extraction and purification of these redox metabolites and subsequent determination by chemical methods. These methods have a few drawbacks as they are incapable of real-time, in planta measurements, nor measurement of these molecules in different cell types or different subcellular compartments. "Our novel technique can circumvent all of these problems. By employing these novel fluorescent protein sensors, we found that photorespiration supplies a large amount of NADH to mitochondria during photosynthesis, which exceeds the NADH-dissipating capacity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Consequently, the surplus NADH must be exported from the mitochondria to the cytosol through the mitochondrial malate-OAA shuttle. (Figure)", said Ms. Sheyli Lim, a PhD student and the first author of a manuscript published in Nature Communications. "Solving this question allows us to understand more about the energy flow between chloroplasts and mitochondria during photosynthesis, which could help us to booth the efficiency of photosynthesis in the future". "The ability to get in vivo estimations on subcellular redox states gives important novel information on regulation of plant metabolism. The results highlight the close connection between the different subcellular compartments to achieve an efficient process. I have for a long time been studying the mitochondrial contribution to photosynthetic metabolism so for me this aspect has been most interesting" said co-author Prof. Per Gardeström of Umeå University. Dr. Lim added: "We are the first group to introduce these three novel energy (ATP, NADPH, NADH/NAD+) sensors in plants. I wish they will have wide applications in researches regarding plant bioenergetics.".
澳大利亚农业公司Elders宣布与SWAN Systems建立合作伙伴关系，SWAN Systems是一个基于水和养分管理的网络平台。此次合作扩大了Elders公司对技术的推动，以最大限度地提高农场效率。位于珀斯的SWAN Systems公司已经开发了与现有农场传感器集成的软件，这些传感器包括流量计、土壤湿度探测器和气象站。其目的是提供有关未来灌溉需求的准确信息，并与任何特定地点的独特特征相关。SWAN Systems的首席运营官兼创始人Ivor Gaylard解释说:“我们可以把所有的数据汇总在一起，帮助农民做出日常决策。优化水资源和营养成分的使用。这一切都是关于如何以环境可持续的方式，充分利用每一滴水和肥料。”
The agri-food sector is moving into an era of digitally enhanced farming, where data is generated during the various stages of agricultural production and all related operations. This data is collected, transferred, processed and analysed. The farmer remains at the heart of the collection, processing and management of agricultural data. Collaborative agri-business models, including agri-cooperatives, collective shared services and other agri-businesses play a key role in ensuring that datadriven strategies add value to the agri-food chain. They can also facilitate collective services, be helpful in negotiating fair contracts and facilitate the implementation of the contracts. Data has become valuable and many experts consider BIG DATA to be the next major driver for productivity gains in agriculture. However, data analytics involve much more than simply putting information into expert hands; they are about enhancing knowledge in close collaboration with data originators and generating benefits within the value chain. Digital farming represents an unprecedented opportunity to create value and business opportunities by applying data-driven solutions: „ To improve resource efficiency, productivity, environmental processes, animal health and welfare and provide tools to mitigate climate change „ To adapt business plans, respond to dynamic markets and consumer expectations „ To decrease administrative and bureaucratic costs and enable sciencebased policies To provide better and more prosperous living conditions for rural communities Digital farming makes the collection and exchange of data possible at an unprecedented level. In order to tap into all of the potential benefits, data sharing between different stakeholders must be conducted under fair and transparent rules. The increasing exchange of data poses a major challenge for the EU agri-food sector. It raises questions about privacy, data protection, intellectual property, data attribution (sometimes referred to as ownership), relationships of trust/ power, storage, conservation, usability and security. The nature of agricultural data is highly specific but very diverse. The collection of agricultural data includes, among others, livestock and fish data, land and agronomic data, climate data, machine data, financial data and compliance data. Some of this data may be considered to be personal data, sensitive data or be seen as confidential information from the point of view of many agro-businesses providing services/ equipment for farm activities. Agricultural data is therefore of economic importance for both farmers and the entire value chain and it is essential that the necessary safeguards are built in. Theoretically, usage rights can be granted to an infinite number of parties, which reflects the non-physical nature of data. Due to this nonphysical nature, it is difficult to monitor who is authorised to share data and what data is shared. Unintentional and uninformed sharing of data can disadvantage the data originators and the value chain (e.g. misuse of sensitive data, unfair trading practices, breach of the legitimate IP right). This makes data originators, for instance, farmers, breeding companies, contractors, etc., cautious about sharing their data. There is a common political view that assumes that increasing data sharing is only possible by making it mandatory, due to the originators’ unwillingness to share data. The opposite is true: farmers and agri-businesses are more than willing to share data with each other and engage in a more open data mind-set. However, they will only do so if the potential benefits and risks are made clear and when they can trust that these are settled in a proper and fair way through contractual agreements. It is therefore crucial to define key principles on data rights, be they proprietary or similar rights, access rights and/or data re-use rights. Transparency and responsibility are key to gaining trust. If such principles are established and followed, then it will be possible to construct business models that benefit all stakeholders involved. Given that technology and digital tools will continue to evolve, it is fundamental for all parties involved to engage in dialogue on the opportunities and challenges of data sharing. This code predominantly focusses on nonpersonal data. Nevertheless, if data is linked to a person who is identifiable through a contract, land register, coordinates, etc., it is considered as personal data and falls under the General Data Protection Regulation. We hope that this explanation will advise stakeholders on the main principles related to the rights and obligations of using and sharing data. This will ensure that stakeholders are confident that data is secure and handled in an appropriate manner as well as facilitate data-driven business models. Compliance with the code of conduct is voluntary. The signatories therefore encourage all parties involved in the agri-food chain to conform according to these jointly agreed principles.
A problem to be solved by the present invention is to obtain a nutriculture system that can manage a growth environment of a plant in accordance with the state of the plant, to thereby produce good quality vegetables and fruits with low production costs. The nutriculture system 100 of the present invention is a nutriculture system for cultivating a plant 10 using a nutrient solution L. The nutriculture system comprises : a growth unit 110 that grows a plant; a nutrient solution tank 131 that accommodates the nutrient solution; a measuring unit 140 that measures concentration of at least one ion of a plurality of ions contained in the nutrient solution; and a control unit that controls the growth environment of the nutriculture system on the basis of change of measurement values of ion concentrations.