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[前沿资讯] 邬贺铨:工业互联网平台发展态势、特征及建议 进入全文

中国电子报;; 中国轻工业网

编者的话:两化深度融合是建设制造强国和网络强国的必由之路,是我国制造业实现“换道超车”的必然选择。党的十八大以来,我国两化深度融合不断取得新进展,顶层设计逐步加强,推进体系持续完善,发展成效不断显现,两化深度融合发展步入快速发展轨道,为中国经济转型、提质增效提供了强大动力。为集中反映我国两化深度融合发展的方方面面,中国电子报特别策划推出“改革开放40年·两化融合”特刊,邀请主管部门专家学者撰写文章,从工业互联网、制造业“双创”、两化融合体系贯标、产业数字化转型、网络化协同制造等方面,讲述改革开放以来两化融合发展的主要成就,提出新时代我国两化融合发展的思路建议。 工业互联网平台是推动新一代信息技术与制造业融合的重要载体,是制造业的数字化、网络化和智能化发展的基础。近日,就工业互联网平台发展的一些热点问题,中国电子报记者对中国工程院院士邬贺铨进行了专访。   大企业加快平台化转型工业App发展迅速   记者:作为工业全要素、全产业链、全价值链连接的枢纽,您认为工业互联网平台的内涵具体是指什么?当前工业互联网平台发展态势如何?   邬贺铨:工业互联网通过新一代信息技术在工业的融合集成应用,构建起人、机、物全面互联的新型网络基础设施,实现制造资源泛在连接,弹性互补和高效配置。工业互联网平台是工业互联网的中枢,基于云计算的开放式、可扩展的工业操作系统,向下接入海量设备、自身承载工业知识与微服务、向上支撑工业App开发部署。主要发达国家依托各自比较优势,行业巨头企业陆续推出自己的平台产品,意在抢占工业大数据入口的主导权。我们国家基于行业经验,也在努力构建平台服务能力,融入全球平台发展热潮,并取得了较好的发展成效。包括大企业加快平台化转型、工业软件云化、工业App发展迅速以及联盟发挥积极作用三个方面。   工业互联网平台成为两化深度融合的突破口   记者:在推动互联网、大数据、人工智能和实体经济深度融合的大背景下,支撑工业互联网平台发展的技术产业有哪些变化?   邬贺铨:制造业是实体经济的主体,是深化互联网、大数据、人工智能和实体经济融合的主战场。制造业利用新一代信息技术的广度深度不断扩展,工业互联网平台成为两化深度融合的突破口。一是工业网络发展呈现无线化、灵活化和扁平化特点。二是工业软件传统应用和研发体系正逐渐被重构。三是平台成为技术融合的核心载体。   四方面制约我国工业互联网平台发展   记者:目前制约我国工业互联网平台发展的主要问题是什么?   邬贺铨:尽管我国工业互联网平台发展具备良好产业和网络基础,并且取得了初步成效,但是与发达国家相比,仍然存在一定差距。包括关键基础能力不足、全球引领能力不足、资金保障能力不足和人才培养能力不足。   以工业互联网平台创新发展为抓手实现向价值链高端水平跃升   记者:您对进一步推进我国工业互联网平台发展有什么好的思路建议?   邬贺铨:我个人认为,要立足当前新一代信息技术与制造业融合发展变革的关键时点与历史性机遇,有效聚合各领域企业、高校与科研机构并形成合力,以工业互联网平台创新发展为抓手,实现向价值链高端水平跃升。一是提升产业支撑能力,构建完整供给体系。二是聚焦前沿热点,加快技术和模式创新。三是完善资本市场支撑环境,实现产融的良性互动。四是统筹协调构建保障体系,提供良好的发展环境。

[前沿资讯] British trial shows precision farming can pay 进入全文

FUTUREFARMING.com

在英国中部3个农场进行的一项试验表明,精耕细作是可以赚钱的——即使是那些农民认为表现不佳的田地,也能获得收益。大多数农田都有较差的产区,它可能是发芽率较低的重土壤区域,也可能是存在slug或Blackgrass。无论是什么原因,采用固定费率投入,农民永远无法从这些表现不佳的地区获得最大收益。因此,通过改变田间的投入,例如在发芽较差的地区提高种子率,农民可以提高产量。然而,有一种观点认为精细农业是不赚钱的,或者农民需要在一块土地上拥有非常多变的土壤才能获取收益。 为了查明事实是否如此,Hutchinsons作物生产专家在上个季节对3个农场进行了Split-field试验,将Omnia的精耕细作方法与冬小麦的常规耕作方法进行了比较。结果显示,精耕细作确实有效,三个地点的产量平均增长0.6吨/公顷。该应用使农民能够使用不同的信息层生成输入应用计划,包括作物生物量数据——来自无人机、机载传感器和显示不同slug和Blackgrass压力的卫星图。特别有趣的是,在林肯郡波恩附近的格罗夫农场的一块土壤变化不大的田地里,产量也出现了增长。Zyatt小麦试验田以海相粘土为主。一半的农田采用Omnia精确农场管理,另一半遵循标准农场实践。Strelczuk先生解释说,种子和养分的总投入保持不变,以便在两个部分之间进行直接比较。另外,研究小组还进行了可变种子率图、钻探地图、施肥计划等。得益于0.6吨/公顷的精确产量带来的显著收益,该公司正在扩大本季度的试验范围。Strelczuk表示,10个农场已经开始种植冬小麦,他们计划在另外20个农场考虑春季种植。

[学术文献] Simultaneous Detection of Ammonium and Nitrate in Environmental Samples Using on Ion-Selective Electrode and Comparison with Portable Colorimetric Assays 进入全文

SENSORS

Simple, robust, and low-cost nitrate- and ammonium-selective electrodes were made using substrate prepared from household materials. We explored phosphonium-based ILs and poly (methyl methacrylate)/poly(decyl methacrylate)(MMA-DMA) copolymer as matrix materials alternative to classical PVC-based membranes. IL-based membranes showed suitability only for nitrate-selective electrode exhibiting linear concentration range between 5.0 x 10(-6) and 2.5 x 10(-3) M with a detection limit of 5.5 x 10(-7) M. On the other hand, MMA-DMAbased membranes showed suitability for both ammonium- and nitrate-selective electrodes, and were successfully applied to detect NO3- and NH4+ in water and soil samples. The proposed ISEs exhibited near-Nernstian potentiometric responses to NO3- and NH4+ with the linear range concentration between 5.0 x 10(-5) and 5.0 x 10(-2) M (LOD = 11.3 mu M) and 5.0 x 10(-6) and 1.0 x 10(-3) M (LOD = 1.2 mu M), respectively. The power of ISEs to detect NO3- and NH4+ in water and soils was tested by comparison with traditional, portable colorimetric techniques. Procedures required for analysis by each technique from the perspective of a non-trained person (e.g., farmer) and the convenience of the use on the field are compared and contrasted.

[学术文献] LiDAR-only based navigation algorithm for an autonomous agricultural robot 进入全文

COMPUTERS AND ELECTRONICS IN AGRICULTURE

The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to develop a general and robust approach for autonomous robot navigation inside a crop using LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data. To be as robust as possible, the robot navigation must not need any prior information about the crop (such as the size and width of the rows). The developed approach is based on line extractions from 2D point clouds using a PEARL based method. In this paper, additional filters and refinements of the PEARL algorithm are presented in the context of crop detection. A penalization of outliers, a model elimination step, a new model search and a geometric constraint are proposed to improve the crop detection. The approach has been tested over a simulator and compared with classical PEARL and RANSAC based approaches. It appears that adding those modification improved the crop detection and thus the robot navigation. Those results are presented and discussed in this paper. It can be noticed that even if this paper presents simulated results (to ease the comparison with other algorithms), the approach also has been successfully tested using an actual Oz weeding robot, developed by the French company Naio Technologies.

[学术文献] Robotic in-row weed control in vegetables 进入全文

COMPUTERS AND ELECTRONICS IN AGRICULTURE

Vegetables and other row-crops represent a large share of the agricultural production. There is a large variation in crop species, and a limited availability in specialized herbicides. The robot presented here utilizes systematic growing techniques to navigate and operate in the field. By the use of machine vision it separates seeded vegetable crops from weed. Each weed within the row is treated with individual herbicide droplets, without affecting the crop. This results in a significant reduction in herbicide use, and allows for the use of herbicides that would otherwise harm the crop. The robot is tailored to this purpose with cost, maintainability, efficient operation and robustness in mind. The three-wheeled design is unconventional, and the design maintains maneuverability and stability with the benefit of reduced weight, complexity and cost. Indoor pot trials with four weed species demonstrated that the Drop-on-Demand system (DoD) could control the weeds with as little as 7.6 mu g glyphosate or 0.15 mu g iodosulfuron per plant. The results also highlight the importance of liquid characteristics for droplet stability and leaf retention properties. The common herbicide glyphosate had no effect unless mixed with suitable additives. A field trial with the robot was performed in a carrot field, and all the weeds were effectively controlled with the DoD system applying 5.3 mu g of glyphosate per droplet. The robot and DoD system represent a paradigm shift to the environmental impact and health risks of weed control, while providing a valuable tool to the producers.

[前沿资讯] MIT计划投资10亿美元组建跨学科AI学院 进入全文

科技部

近日,美国麻省理工学院(MIT)宣布投资10亿美元创建一所新学院,旨在培养人工智能(AI)方面的复合型人才,让学生不仅掌握AI技术,而且能够思考AI带来的影响。目前,学院已筹集了三分之二的资金,计划于2019年秋季开学。MIT的校长表示,该学院的目标是培养跨学科复合型人才,学生来自于生物、化学、政治、历史和语言学等专业,同时使他们掌握现代计算机知识技术,并将这些知识技术应用于具体的专业研究中。为培养复合型人才,必须构建新的教学结构。尽管跨学科的课程设计打破了系际界限,但各个系之间仍倾向独自为政。新建学院的50名教职员工,其中一半将专注于推进计算机科学,而另一半将由学院与MIT其他系联合任命。通常,各系在学校的招聘中占主导地位,这样,一个通过人工智能文本分析技术进行历史研究的学者,在人文系可能更多地被视为计算机科学家,但在计算机科学系则可能被认为没有太多的技术含量,MIT的校领导希望学院的建立能够打破这些传统的思想和做法。对学生而言,则希望其更多地将机器学习、数据科学等计算机专业课程的知识融入专业。大家期待,新学院能够帮助非计算机领域的研究人员在他们的学科领域内应用AI工具。

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