The general business climate index of the agricultural machinery industry in Europe is further deteriorating. Meanwhile, the industry is clearly in recession. The business climate is now negative across all segments. Manufacturers of arable and livestock equipment appear to be particularly affected. On an industry average, not only current business evaluations and turnover expectations are negative. Almost half of the participants also expect further declines in incoming orders (while only nearly one in ten expects an increasing order intake). A slowdown of the downward trend is thus not in sight. On the European market side, according to the survey, the outlook for the UK is the worst and has reached a new low. France remains as the only positive exception, where a majority of survey participants still expect turnover increases. France is also the only European market where participants report that dealer stock levels with new machines are currently not above the average of the past three years. The highest above-average stocks with new machines can be seen in the UK and Germany. Dealer stock levels with used machines seem to be above average in all segments throughout Europe.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
The guarantee of food safety requires fast and accurate control for all contaminants, chemicals and bacteria, which are harmful to human health. Ensuring the safety and quality of food is the main interest both for the food industry and for consumers. In the food industry, the safety of a food product is evaluated through chemical and microbiological analysis: these procedures conventionally use the technique as chromatography, spectrophotometry and electrophoresis that are time-consuming, require highly trained personnel, are expensive and require steps of sample pretreatment, increasing the time of analysis. Consequently, among food and beverage industries, exists a growing demand in biosensing technologies as simple, rapid, accurate, low – cost and portable analytical devices for the monitoring and detection of chemical and microbiological contaminants (toxins, mycotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, pesticides and allergens) that endanger the food safety. Among biosensors, the label-free biosensors, characterised by direct detection of the analyte of interest, exploiting the advantages of an impedimetric transduction technique, seem to be the most promising devices for the future. In the last years, the potential use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy technique has been widely considered in the biosensor field; it is, in fact, a powerful, non-destructive and informative technique which can be used to study the electrical properties of the sensing device interface and to trace the reactions that occur on it. For these reasons, the application of impedimetric technique as a transduction technology has allowed the label-free detection and sensitive quantification of the bio interaction in different application and thus for the development of food hazards biosensors too. This review provides the current situation in the literature on label-free impedimetric biosensors in food safety.
[学术文献] Rapid detection of trace Salmonella in milk and chicken by immunomagnetic separation in combination with a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay 进入全文
ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
Rapid detection of trace Salmonella is urgently needed to ensure food safety. We present an innovative pretreatment strategy, based on a two-step enrichment culture and immunomagnetic separation, combined with a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay to detect at least one proliferative Salmonella cell in 25 mL (25 g) food. The capture performance of immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) of sizes for Salmonella was investigated, and the IMBs of size 2.8 μm showed a high capture efficiency of 60.7% in 25 mL milk and 74.5% in 25 mL chicken culture filtrate, which ensured the successful capture of trace Salmonella after 2.5 h in situ enrichment even from only one Salmonella cell. The separated Salmonella cells, reaching an amount of 103 colony-forming units (CFU) by a secondary enrichment for 3 h, were detected by a horseradish peroxidase chemiluminescence reaction with 4-(1-imidazolyl)phenol as an enhancer, which evidenced a linear response for Salmonella concentrations ranging from 2.3 × 102 to 7.8 × 104 CFU/mL. The entire detection process was completed within 8 h, with a very low detection limit of 1 CFU/25 mL (25 g), which was verified by colony counting, and a small degree of interference of 0.17–1.06%. Trace Salmonella from five different serovars in milk and chicken was successfully detected without false negative or false positive results. Furthermore, this study provides a basis to develop a fully automated instrument based on IMBs that includes all steps from sample preparation to chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay for high-throughput screening of foodborne pathogens.
[学术文献] Comparative Study of Electrochemical Sensors Based on Enzyme Immobilized into Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules and into Chitosan Gel 进入全文
The characteristics of an electrochemical biosensor based on a Prussian-blue screen-printed electrode containing glucose oxidase incorporated into polyelectrolyte microcapsules (PMC) are considered. PMC with the embedded enzyme were formed using sodium polystyrene sulfonate and poly(allylamine hydrochloride). The characteristics were compared with those of the enzyme immobilized in chitosan gel. We assessed the dependences of biosensor signals on the composition of the buffer solution, on the glucose concentration; the operational and long-term stabilities. The enzyme immobilized in PMC proved to be more sensitive to buffer molarity at a maximum within 35 – 40 mM. The apparent Michaelis constants were 1.5 and 4.1 mM at the immobilization in, respectively, chitosan and PMC. The developed biosensors were used to assay commercial juices. The biosensors’ data on the glucose contents were shown to have a high correlation with the standard spectrophotometric assay (0.92 – 0.95%), which implies a possible application of the fabricated biosensors in foodstuff analysis.