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[前沿资讯] 研究系统阐述我国转基因抗虫作物发展现状 进入全文

中国农业科学院

近日,中国农业科学院植物保护研究所李云河研究员带领的转基因作物安全评价与管理创新团队系统分析了我国转基因抗虫作物的研发现状、应用经验,探讨了发展前景、面临的挑战及应对策略。随着我国经济发展和人民生活水平的不断提高,提升农业发展水平、保障粮食安全已成为我国面临的重大问题。现代农业生物技术的发展为我国农业绿色可持续发展带来了契机。在政府的大力支持下,转基因作物的研发工作取得了巨大的进展。但由于公众对转基因生物的认识不足及其他多方面因素,导致我国在转基因作物商业化方面止步于转基因抗虫棉花,在其他如抗虫玉米、水稻等重要转基因作物商业化上踯躅不前。本文系统阐述了我国转基因抗虫作物的开发和应用现状,分析了Bt棉花商业化种植带来的生态、经济和社会效益,重点探讨了我国在Bt棉花靶标害虫抗性治理及非靶标害虫综合防控方面积累的重要经验;同时,系统分析了我国转基因抗虫玉米、水稻等重大作物商业化应用的前景、经济社会和生态效益及面临的重要问题,国际上首次探讨了通过转基因抗虫作物的科学合理布局,对重大迁飞性靶标害虫的区域性治理和跨境防控的重要意义;最后,探讨了进一步提升我国生物技术发展和应用的策略,相关建议不但对促进我国农业生物技术的发展具有重要指导意义,同时对其他发展中国家也具有重要的参考价值。

[学术文献] Asymmetric distribution of cytokinins determines root hydrotropism in Arabidopsis thaliana 进入全文

Cell Research期刊

The phenomenon of plant root tips sensing moisture gradient in soil and growing towards higher water potential is designated as root hydrotropism, which is critical for plants to survive when water is a limited factor. Molecular mechanisms regulating such a fundamental process, however, are largely unknown. Here we report our identification that cytokinins are key signaling molecules directing root growth orientation in a hydrostimulation (moisture gradient) condition. Lower water potential side of the root tip shows more cytokinin response relative to the higher water potential side. Consequently, two cytokinin downstream type-A response regulators, ARR16 and ARR17, were found to be up-regulated at the lower water potential side, causing increased cell division in the meristem zone, which allows the root to bend towards higher water potential side. Genetic analyses indicated that various cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling mutants, including the arr16 arr17 double mutant, are significantly less responsive to hydrostimulation. Consistently, treatments with chemical inhibitors interfering with either cytokinin biosynthesis or cell division completely abolished root hydrotropic response. Asymmetrically induced expression of ARR16 or ARR17 effectively led to root bending in both wild-type and miz1, a previously known hydrotropism-defective mutant. These data demonstrate that asymmetric cytokinin distribution is a primary determinant governing root hydrotropism.

[学术文献] GIGANTEA gates gibberellin signaling through stabilization of the DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis 进入全文

PNAS期刊

Circadian clock circuitry intersects with a plethora of signaling pathways to adequately time physiological processes to occur at the most appropriate time of the day and year. However, our mechanistic understanding of how the clockwork is wired to its output is limited. Here we uncover mechanistic connections between the core clock component GIGANTEA (GI) and hormone signaling through the modulation of key components of the transduction pathways. Specifically, we show how GI modulates gibberellin (GA) signaling through the stabilization of the DELLA proteins, which act as negative components in the signaling of this hormone. GI function within the GA pathway is required to precisely time the permissive gating of GA sensitivity, thereby determining the phase of GA-regulated physiological outputs.

[前沿资讯] 上海交大陈功友团队开辟水稻广谱抗病育种新途径 进入全文

基因农业网

海交通大学教授陈功友领衔的植物与病原菌分子互作研究团队通过近20年研究,揭示了病原菌效应蛋白这个“间谍”与植物感病基因“接头人”之间的协同进化关系,提出利用基因编辑技术阻断两者之间的协同进化进程,从而使植物获得广谱抗病(RLS)的育种新途径,为解决作物抗病性丧失问题,保障粮食安全与食品安全提供了新的思路。水稻白叶枯病是三大水稻病害之一,是危害水稻生产的头号细菌“杀手”。该病在亚洲、拉丁美洲和西非数十个国家的水稻种植区广泛发生,国内目前除了新疆和东北的北部地区以外,其他省市的水稻种植区均有分布。水稻白叶枯病通常导致水稻减产10%~20%,发生严重的地区可达50%以上,甚至是绝收。同时水稻白叶枯病也是植物病理学和植物免疫学领域最重要的模式系统之一,在科学上具有重要研究价值。

[前沿资讯] 美国批准新型转基因棉花用作食品原料 进入全文

经济参考网

美国食品和药物管理局日前批准将一个品种的转基因棉花用作人和其他动物的食品原料,为利用转基因棉花籽开发新型蛋白质食物打下基础。据路透社报道,获批的TAM66274型转基因棉花作物由美国得克萨斯农业与机械大学农业生命科学研究局开发。研究者称这种可食用的转基因棉花籽口感与鹰嘴豆类似,有助于解决全球面临的营养不良问题。得克萨斯农业与机械大学农业生命科学研究局生物技术专家科尔提·拉索尔说,科学家们正与相关公司研讨该转基因棉花在五年内进入商业化市场的可行性。科研人员也在推动这一转基因作物在墨西哥等其他国家尽早获批。国际农业生物技术应用服务组织今年发布的《2018年全球生物技术/转基因作物商业化发展态势》报告显示,2018年全球转基因作物种植面积已超1.9亿公顷。其中,转基因棉花种植面积达到2490万公顷。

[前沿资讯] Australia proposes to approve BASF's herbicide Luximax 进入全文

AgroNews

The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) has proposed to approve BASF’s Luximax herbicide, an emulsifiable concentrate formulation containing 750 g/L of the new active ingredient, cinmethylin. Luximax herbicide is intended for the pre-emergence control of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) and suppression of certain grass weeds in wheat (not durum wheat). Luximax is not currently registered in any other country.Cinmethylin is a selective inhibitor of acyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein) thioesterase enzyme, resulting in inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis and disruption of cell membranes. The uptake of cinmethylin is mainly through the shoots and roots of germinating weeds. It disrupts meristematic development in growing points of roots and shoots.

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