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[学术文献] Asymmetric distribution of cytokinins determines root hydrotropism in Arabidopsis thaliana 进入全文

Cell Research期刊

The phenomenon of plant root tips sensing moisture gradient in soil and growing towards higher water potential is designated as root hydrotropism, which is critical for plants to survive when water is a limited factor. Molecular mechanisms regulating such a fundamental process, however, are largely unknown. Here we report our identification that cytokinins are key signaling molecules directing root growth orientation in a hydrostimulation (moisture gradient) condition. Lower water potential side of the root tip shows more cytokinin response relative to the higher water potential side. Consequently, two cytokinin downstream type-A response regulators, ARR16 and ARR17, were found to be up-regulated at the lower water potential side, causing increased cell division in the meristem zone, which allows the root to bend towards higher water potential side. Genetic analyses indicated that various cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling mutants, including the arr16 arr17 double mutant, are significantly less responsive to hydrostimulation. Consistently, treatments with chemical inhibitors interfering with either cytokinin biosynthesis or cell division completely abolished root hydrotropic response. Asymmetrically induced expression of ARR16 or ARR17 effectively led to root bending in both wild-type and miz1, a previously known hydrotropism-defective mutant. These data demonstrate that asymmetric cytokinin distribution is a primary determinant governing root hydrotropism.

[学术文献] GIGANTEA gates gibberellin signaling through stabilization of the DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis 进入全文

PNAS期刊

Circadian clock circuitry intersects with a plethora of signaling pathways to adequately time physiological processes to occur at the most appropriate time of the day and year. However, our mechanistic understanding of how the clockwork is wired to its output is limited. Here we uncover mechanistic connections between the core clock component GIGANTEA (GI) and hormone signaling through the modulation of key components of the transduction pathways. Specifically, we show how GI modulates gibberellin (GA) signaling through the stabilization of the DELLA proteins, which act as negative components in the signaling of this hormone. GI function within the GA pathway is required to precisely time the permissive gating of GA sensitivity, thereby determining the phase of GA-regulated physiological outputs.

[前沿资讯] 上海交大陈功友团队开辟水稻广谱抗病育种新途径 进入全文

基因农业网

海交通大学教授陈功友领衔的植物与病原菌分子互作研究团队通过近20年研究,揭示了病原菌效应蛋白这个“间谍”与植物感病基因“接头人”之间的协同进化关系,提出利用基因编辑技术阻断两者之间的协同进化进程,从而使植物获得广谱抗病(RLS)的育种新途径,为解决作物抗病性丧失问题,保障粮食安全与食品安全提供了新的思路。水稻白叶枯病是三大水稻病害之一,是危害水稻生产的头号细菌“杀手”。该病在亚洲、拉丁美洲和西非数十个国家的水稻种植区广泛发生,国内目前除了新疆和东北的北部地区以外,其他省市的水稻种植区均有分布。水稻白叶枯病通常导致水稻减产10%~20%,发生严重的地区可达50%以上,甚至是绝收。同时水稻白叶枯病也是植物病理学和植物免疫学领域最重要的模式系统之一,在科学上具有重要研究价值。

[前沿资讯] 美国批准新型转基因棉花用作食品原料 进入全文

经济参考网

美国食品和药物管理局日前批准将一个品种的转基因棉花用作人和其他动物的食品原料,为利用转基因棉花籽开发新型蛋白质食物打下基础。据路透社报道,获批的TAM66274型转基因棉花作物由美国得克萨斯农业与机械大学农业生命科学研究局开发。研究者称这种可食用的转基因棉花籽口感与鹰嘴豆类似,有助于解决全球面临的营养不良问题。得克萨斯农业与机械大学农业生命科学研究局生物技术专家科尔提·拉索尔说,科学家们正与相关公司研讨该转基因棉花在五年内进入商业化市场的可行性。科研人员也在推动这一转基因作物在墨西哥等其他国家尽早获批。国际农业生物技术应用服务组织今年发布的《2018年全球生物技术/转基因作物商业化发展态势》报告显示,2018年全球转基因作物种植面积已超1.9亿公顷。其中,转基因棉花种植面积达到2490万公顷。

[前沿资讯] Australia proposes to approve BASF's herbicide Luximax 进入全文

AgroNews

The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) has proposed to approve BASF’s Luximax herbicide, an emulsifiable concentrate formulation containing 750 g/L of the new active ingredient, cinmethylin. Luximax herbicide is intended for the pre-emergence control of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) and suppression of certain grass weeds in wheat (not durum wheat). Luximax is not currently registered in any other country.Cinmethylin is a selective inhibitor of acyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein) thioesterase enzyme, resulting in inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis and disruption of cell membranes. The uptake of cinmethylin is mainly through the shoots and roots of germinating weeds. It disrupts meristematic development in growing points of roots and shoots.

[前沿资讯] 拜耳积极致力于构建更具可持续性的粮食系统 进入全文

齐鲁在线网

拜耳迎来种植者、学者、杰出的行业专家、媒体和其他利益相关者参加“2019年未来农业论坛”,共同就农业未来的相关热点话题展开讨论。农业是气候变化解决方案的一个组成部分。未来十年拜耳作物科学研发投入将超过250亿欧元。领先的数字农业付费使用面积2019年将达到9000万英亩。德国蒙海姆2019年10月8日 /美通社/ -- 拜耳迎来种植者、学者、杰出的行业专家、媒体和其他利益相关者参加“2019年未来农业论坛”,共同就农业未来的相关热点话题展开讨论。“农业需要在保护地球家园的同时,满足世界人口的粮食需求,”拜耳股份有限公司管理董事会成员兼作物科学事业部总裁康德(Liam Condon)表示,“突破性创新至关重要,使种植者能够以充足的粮食满足全球不断增长的人口所需,同时保护自然资源。”在“明天属于我们大家”的主题下,论坛邀请了来自约40个国家的演讲者和与会者,参加为期两天的分组讨论,探讨农业面临的问题和机遇。论坛议题包括在粮食生产和保护地球之间找到平衡的必要性;消费者无不良环境影响的健康膳食的需求;以及作物保护工具对可持续农业的重要性。“作为农业领袖,拜耳有机会也有责任应对全球性的气候变化、生物多样性减少和粮食安全等挑战,创造一个更美好的明天,”康德说道。论坛期间,康德分享了拜耳的三项重要承诺,以应对至2030年全球面临的严峻挑战: 通过开发新技术,使种植者减少作物保护产品的用量,提高应用的精确度,将作物保护对环境的影响降低30%。在拜耳服务的主要地区,将排放最多的作物系统的温室气体排放降低30%。为发展中国家提供更多可持续农业解决方案的途径,造福1亿小农户。“将农业创新与以可持续发展为核心的业务模式相结合,使我们能够遵循宗旨,为真正更加美好的生活做出贡献,”康德在主旨讲演中总结道,取得未来的重大突破需要与科学家、创新者、监管机构、种植者和消费者的合作与参与,建立信任并获得社会认同。康德解释说,作物科学事业部的长期成功不是销售更多的产品,而是为种植者提供满足个性化需求的解决方案,减少水、土地、投入品和能源的用量,更加持续地获得更好的丰收。  

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