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[学术文献] The bracteatus pineapple genome and domestication of clonally propagated crops 进入全文

Nature期刊

Domestication of clonally propagated crops such as pineapple from South America was hypothesized to be a ‘one-step operation’. We sequenced the genome of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus CB5 and assembled 513 Mb into 25 chromosomes with 29,412 genes. Comparison of the genomes of CB5, F153 and MD2 elucidated the genomic basis of fiber production, color formation, sugar accumulation and fruit maturation. We also resequenced 89 Ananas genomes. Cultivars ‘Smooth Cayenne’ and ‘Queen’ exhibited ancient and recent admixture, while ‘Singapore Spanish’ supported a one-step operation of domestication. We identified 25 selective sweeps, including a strong sweep containing a pair of tandemly duplicated bromelain inhibitors. Four candidate genes for self-incompatibility were linked in F153, but were not functional in self-compatible CB5. Our findings support the coexistence of sexual recombination and a one-step operation in the domestication of clonally propagated crops. This work guides the exploration of sexual and asexual domestication trajectories in other clonally propagated crops.

[前沿资讯] 玉米新基因:抗击纹枯病的曙光 进入全文

科学网

水稻、小麦、玉米,三大主粮“通吃”。拥有这种“神通”的就是纹枯病,它通常悄悄地从作物基部叶鞘发生,严重时可引起整个植株枯死。水稻和小麦纹枯病是生产上最普遍最严重的病害之一,而玉米纹枯病发病面积逐年增多,有时可达70%以上。对纹枯病抗性资源的筛选和抗病基因的鉴定与克隆,受到科学界广泛关注,但相关研究工作进展缓慢。北京时间10月1日,《自然-遗传学》杂志在线发表了山东农业大学教授储昭辉课题组联合华中农业大学教授严建兵课题组的最新研究成果。他们成功从玉米中克隆了针对纹枯病的抗病基因,并揭示了该基因产物通过调控细胞壁重要组分木质素合成而增强植物抗病性的新机制。这为抗击纹枯病带来了新的曙光。

[学术文献] Natural variation in ZmFBL41 confers banded leaf and sheath blight resistance in maize 进入全文

Nature Genetics期刊

Rhizoctonia solani is a widely distributed phytopathogen that causes banded leaf and sheath blight in maize and sheath blight in rice. Here, we identified an F-box protein (ZmFBL41) that confers resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight through a genome-wide association study in maize. Rice overexpressing ZmFBL41 showed elevated susceptibility to R. solani. Two amino acid substitutions in this allele prevent its interaction with ZmCAD, which encodes the final enzyme in the monolignol biosynthetic pathway, resulting in the inhibition of ZmCAD degradation and, consequently, the accumulation of lignin and restriction of lesion expansion. Knocking out the ZmCAD-homologous gene OsCAD8B in rice enhanced susceptibility to R. solani. The results reveal a susceptibility mechanism in which R. solanitargets the host proteasome to modify the secondary metabolism of the plant cell wall for its invasion. More importantly, it provides an opportunity to generate R. solani–resistant varieties of different plant species.

[前沿资讯] “香蕉艾滋病”基因编辑成避免香蕉灭绝的希望 进入全文

基因农业网

南美洲是香蕉生产和出口大国,南美的厄瓜多尔是世界上最大的香蕉出口国,哥伦比亚、哥斯达黎加和危地马拉也是香蕉的大生产国。香蕉种植园最怕的就是真菌感染,1950年,一种叫做巴拿马病的香蕉传染病爆发,直接导致当时在南美洲广泛种植的香蕉品种大麦克香蕉(Gros Michel)彻底绝种。此后,科学家培育出对巴拿马病有抵抗能力的新品种卡文迪什香蕉(Cavendish),取代大麦克香蕉,成为目前最广泛种植的香蕉品种,现在,卡文迪什香蕉占全世界香蕉总销量的99%。然而,感染香蕉的真菌也一直在进化,巴拿马病的一个变种黄叶病热带第4型,出现了。黄叶病热带第4型,是由真菌感染导致,一旦感染香蕉,就会导致水分及养料无法输送,使香蕉树中心部分萎缩发黑,2-3年内更可令香蕉园内所有香蕉彻底枯萎。可怕的是,这种真菌的孢子能潜伏在泥土中30年以上,因此一旦感染过的土地,就不能再种植香蕉,而且这种真菌能通过水滴及依附在机器或鞋子上的少量泥土传播。这种可怕的香蕉传染病被形象的称呼为香蕉艾滋病,这种香蕉艾滋病之前已在亚洲广泛传播。“香蕉艾滋病”蔓延,CRISPR基因编辑成为避免香蕉灭绝的唯一希望然而,就在上个月,哥伦比亚政府证实,黄叶病热带第4型已经传播到了哥伦比亚的四个香蕉种植园。遏制黄叶病热带第4型传播的唯一方法就是销毁种植园所有植物,并关闭整个种植园数十年。因为这种真菌的孢子可以在土壤中存活30年以上,杀菌剂对它们根本无效。由于卡文迪什香蕉的广泛种植,黄叶病热带第4型一旦大规模传播,将很可能彻底摧毁整个香蕉种植业。因此设计并培育能够抵抗这种病害的新一代香蕉,变得非常紧迫。由于卡文迪什香蕉是无性繁殖的,没有种子,只能通过克隆进行繁殖,因此无法通过传统育种方法赋予它对黄叶病热带第4型的抗病性。佛罗里达大学植物病理学家兰迪·普洛茨(Randy Ploetz)认为,想从这种真菌手里挽救卡文迪什香蕉,或许只有一种办法,那就是修改它的基因组。澳大利亚的一个研究团队已经开始这项研究,他们使用CRISPR基因编辑技术,将野生香蕉中的一个基因加入到卡文迪什香蕉基因组中,来增强卡文迪什香蕉对真菌的抵抗力。目前他们已经开始在田间测试这种改良香蕉。

[前沿资讯] 中国农业科学院生物所揭示苜蓿类胡萝卜素合成调控机制 进入全文

中国农业科学院

近日,中国农业科学院生物技术研究所作物高光效团队牛丽芳课题组和林浩课题组合作在饲草作物功能基因研究方面取得突破,揭示了苜蓿类胡萝卜素生物合成的分子调控机制。优化调整种植业结构,支持饲料作物种植,促进粮食作物、经济作物、饲料作物三元种植结构协调发展是我国新形势下应对居民膳食结构改变、缓解粮食供求矛盾的重要举措。苜蓿是世界著名优良饲草,也是我国栽培面积最大的一种豆科饲料作物,由于其具有蛋白质丰富、适应性强、能改良土壤和经济价值高等优点而享有“牧草之王”的美誉。苜蓿的产量和品质改良是我国当前草业、畜牧业,特别是奶业发展的重大迫切需求。类胡萝卜素是自然界广泛存在的一类天然脂溶性色素,在植物光合作用、激素合成、颜色决定等方面发挥重要作用,同时具有抗氧化、抗肿瘤、增强免疫和保护视觉等多种生物学功能,为人类和动物健康提供重要保障,但目前关于类胡萝卜素合成的分子调控机制仍不清楚。 该研究利用一个类胡萝卜素合成缺陷的蒺藜苜蓿突变体,成功克隆了控制蒺藜苜蓿类胡萝卜素合成关键调控基因WHITE PETAL1(WP1),该基因编码一个R2R3型MYB转录因子,通过直接激活类胡萝卜素合成途径基因表达,调控蒺藜苜蓿花中类胡萝卜素积累。进一步研究发现WP1通过与bHLH家族蛋白MtTT8和WD40家族蛋白MtWD40-1形成转录激活复合体,协同调控蒺藜苜蓿类胡萝卜素生物合成。上述研究工作系统揭示了植物类胡萝卜素生物合成的调控机制,为培育类胡萝卜素营养改良型作物和优质功能性饲草新品种提供重要理论基础。

[学术文献] Noncanonical auxin signaling regulates cell division pattern during lateral root development 进入全文

PNAS期刊

In both plants and animals, multiple cellular processes must be orchestrated to ensure proper organogenesis. The cell division patterns control the shape of growing organs, yet how they are precisely determined and coordinated is poorly understood. In plants, the distribution of the phytohormone auxin is tightly linked to organogenesis, including lateral root (LR) development. Nevertheless, how auxin regulates cell division pattern during lateral root development remains elusive. Here, we report that auxin activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling via transmembrane kinases (TMKs) to control cell division pattern during lateral root development. Both TMK1/4 and MKK4/5-MPK3/6 pathways are required to properly orient cell divisions, which ultimately determine lateral root development in response to auxin. We show that TMKs directly and specifically interact with and phosphorylate MKK4/5, which is required for auxin to activate MKK4/5-MPK3/6 signaling. Our data suggest that TMK-mediated noncanonical auxin signaling is required to regulate cell division pattern and connect auxin signaling to MAPK signaling, which are both essential for plant development.

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