[学术文献] Agricultural productivity current scenario, constraints and future prospects in Pakistan 进入全文
Sarhad Journal of Agriculture
This review paper intends to portray current scenario of agricultural productivity through yields and gaps of five major crops; wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane. The review discusses major constraints, identifies future prospects and makes policy recommendations for enhanced agricultural productivity in Pakistan. The review revealed that in Pakistan, on average current yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane is 2.26, 1.87, 2.88, 1.77 and 48.06 tons per hectare, respectively against 6.80, 4.30, 5.20, 9.20 and 300 tons per hectare potential yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane, respectively, obtained through research. This reflects a yield gap of 67, 57, 45, 81 and 84% between average and potential yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane, respectively. The review also informed that current Pakistan's average yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane is 70, 53, 61, 82 and 60%, respectively lower than the average yields obtained internationally. Major constraints include agronomic, irrigation management, environmental, technological, institutional and socio-economic constraints. Future prospects include upscaling of modern technology, enhanced seed production, improved inputs availability and use, improved irrigation, improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality seed production, improving irrigation water management and improving reclamation and drainage.
China will become the leading destination for exports from Latin America and the Caribbean in 2017, with growth of 23 percent this year, according to a new report by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). ECLAC's Executive Secretary, Alicia Barcena, unveiled the annual report on the region's trade on Monday in Santiago and said that exports would bounce back by 10 percent in 2017, after five years of slowdown. "I think there have been many important steps between China and Latin America and the Caribbean. Now, the most important (objective) is to diversify the basket of exports so Chinese companies invest in our region," Barcena told Xinhua during a news conference.
Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev wrapped up his three-day China trip on Nov 2 with nearly 20 deals in investment, energy and space exploration and agreed with Premier Li to advance pragmatic cooperation between the two countries. With current Sino-Russian relations in the best period of history, Medvedev said Russia is willing to enhance traditional cooperation with China in areas such as energy, infrastructure construction and aviation, and to expand to new areas including e-commerce and financial investment. Let's look back on some highlights of the China-Russia economic ties.
The Directorate of Economics and Statistics brings out its flagship Publication "Agriculture Statistics at a Glance" every year. The Publication is widely used as a reference book for data on various aspects of agriculture and allied sector including growth and investment in agriculture, crop production and productivity across the states, minimum support price, cost of production, terms of trade, imports and exports, land-use statistics, inputs, credit and crop insurance. The wide coverage of data in a single book makes it a much sought after and valued publication. The publication will be of immense use to policy makers, farmers, researchers, scientists, administrators, trade, industry, statisticians, economists and the general public. I am sure that this new edition will be appreciated for its up-to-date coverage of data on the agriculture and allied sectors.
Agricultural Economics (Zemedelska Ekonomika)
The paper analyses the current position of the Russian Federation in the global market of agricultural products and foodstuffs with the accent on the comparative advantage of Russian agricultural exports in relation to specific regions and states. The key purpose of the research is to classify the most significant changes in the structure of Russian agricultural exports. The results show that the structure of Russian trade is changing continuously and evolving along with the process of economic transformation and trade liberalization. Exports become less diversified and are concentrated in a few segments. From the perspective of comparative advantage, cereals, fish and vegetable oils are the segments of Russian exports which become more significant. The comparative advantages of Russian exports are strengthening mostly in the case of African, Asian and CIS countries.
[学术文献] Impact of land ownership on productivity and efficiency of rice farmers: the case of the Philippines 进入全文
Land Use Policy
Land is a key factor in production agriculture and the land rental market is an important institution in agriculture. Rental activity of both sharecropped and fixed rent arrangements represents about 25% of cultivated land in the Philippines. The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) of 1988, which essentially redistributes land to landless farmers, has implications for land ownership and farm productivity. This study investigates the impact of land ownership on the productivity and technical efficiency of rice farmers in the Philippines. We use a 2007-2012 Loop Survey from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and a stochastic frontier function method. Results show that land ownership has a significant impact on technical efficiency. In particular, counter to the theory, the CARP may have reduced the technical efficiency of leasehold farmers compared with owner operators. Additionally, results show that land area, fuel cost, fertilizer cost, irrigation cost, and labor cost are significant factors that affect rice production. We found a mean technical efficiency score of 0.79-still leaving room for improvement. Finally, educated females and farmers leasing land have higher technical inefficiency.