[学术文献] How do farmers manage crop biodiversity? A dynamic acreage model with productive feedback 进入全文
European Review of Agricultural Economics
Previous studies on the productive value of biodiversity have emphasised that crop diversity increases crop yields. Here, we focus on the management of crop biodiversity for wheat, winter barley and rapeseed productions. We introduce productive capacity of biodiversity into a structural dynamic model with supply, variable input demand and acreage functions. We estimate the model for a sample of French farms between 2007 and 2012. We highlight that biodiversity indicators influence the yield of crops and variable input uses. We find evidence that farmers manage their acreage to benefit from the productive capacity of crop biodiversity.
[学术文献] Sustaining our Natural Resources in the Face of Increasing Societal Demands on Agriculture: Directions for Future Research 进入全文
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy
U.S. agriculture is vital to meeting a growing global population’s demand for food, fiber, feed, and fuel. Smart technologies, big data, and improvements in crop genetics present producers with promising new opportunities for meeting these needs. However, a changing climate and an expanding global population impose challenges to increasing crop and livestock production while sustaining the natural resource base and protecting environmental quality. Sustainable agricultural development will call for systems approaches to allocate land among competing uses, coupled with the adoption of conservation technologies incentivized by cost-effective policies that have been based on evidence from sound economic, behavioral, biological, and technological research. This paper suggests directions for future research in nine key dimensions that can fill important gaps in the existing literature and build on new research methods and policy needs, as well as inform strategies for sustainable growth of agriculture.
[学术文献] BIG DATA ANALYTICS AND PRECISION ANIMAL AGRICULTURE SYMPOSIUM: Machine learning and data mining advance predictive big data analysis in precision animal agriculture 进入全文
Journal of Animal Science
Precision animal agriculture is poised to rise to prominence in the livestock enterprise in the domains of management, production, welfare, sustainability, health surveillance, and environmental footprint. Considerable progress has been made in the use of tools to routinely monitor and collect information from animals and farms in a less laborious manner than before. These efforts have enabled the animal sciences to embark on information technology-driven discoveries to improve animal agriculture. However, the growing amount and complexity of data generated by fully automated, high-throughput data recording or phenotyping platforms, including digital images, sensor and sound data, unmanned systems, and information obtained from real-time noninvasive computer vision, pose challenges to the successful implementation of precision animal agriculture. The emerging fields of machine learning and data mining are expected to be instrumental in helping meet the daunting challenges facing global agriculture. Yet, their impact and potential in “big data” analysis have not been adequately appreciated in the animal science community, where this recognition has remained only fragmentary. To address such knowledge gaps, this article outlines a framework for machine learning and data mining and offers a glimpse into how they can be applied to solve pressing problems in animal sciences.
American Journal of Agricultural Economics
Estimates of tax reform’s impacts usually concentrate on macroeconomic impacts, but attention at the industry or sectoral level is often limited. Our study uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to estimate the disaggregated impacts of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) of 2018, which lowered personal and corporate tax rates. Focusing on agriculture, we use survey data to calculate how the TCJA would change the tax rates faced by farmers at the sector level. We use Internal Revenue Service data to calculate tax rates for all other producers. We then simulate the economy-wide and sectoral effects of TCJA. We find that the TCJA would cause a reduction in agricultural output as resources would be reallocated to other sectors. Using our survey data, we extend the CGE results to measure the impacts to farm households—from changes in on- and off-farm income. We find that most farm households would have income gains from tax reform. Our tax reform scenario highlights the fact that investment weighs heavily on model results. That is, firms that are attractive to domestic and foreign investment have gains in demand for their products, while other sectors, such as primary agriculture, experience decreases in production. A sensitivity analysis that reduces the attractiveness of the United States in foreign investment shows smaller impacts of TCJA, especially for macroeconomic variables.
[学术文献] Effectiveness of Food Subsidies in Raising Healthy Food Consumption: Public Distribution of Pulses in India 进入全文
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
This paper provides evidence on the effectiveness of one of the most common policies to improve nutrition among the poor, that is, a food subsidy. We study the case of subsidies on pulses in select Indian states and their impact on consumption and ultimately nutrition (protein intake). As a natural experiment, we use the introduction of pulses into India’s Public Distribution System (PDS) where the variations in prices were brought about by the inclusion of pulses in the PDS in some states and not in others. Our difference in difference (DID) estimates show that change in the consumption of pulses because of their inclusion in the PDS, though statistically significant, was of a small order. The impact was not large enough to bring about any sizable difference in consumption of pulses or the total protein intake. The results withstand several robustness checks including randomized inference and triple differencing based on location and other consumer characteristics.