In the effort to eliminate poverty worldwide, policies that address rural poverty must be central. The global rural poverty rate is higher than the urban poverty rate, and rural residents account for 80% of the extremely poor. Revitalizing rural areas so that they are productive, sustainable and healthy places to learn, work, and live can have a tremendous impact on global poverty. Revitalizing rural areas to strengthen the connection between rural and urban economies can spur growth and diversify the farm and non-farm sectors to contribute to poverty reduction. Rural areas have the potential to become hubs of innovation and to drive the transformation of food systems and overall livelihoods.
[前沿资讯] Poor in Africa south of the Sahara face rising disproportionate risks from extreme weather 进入全文
Weather shocks driven by climate change pose huge and still uncertain risks to the world’s poor. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “For many kinds of disruption, from crop failure caused by drought to sickness and death from heat waves, the main risks are in the extremes, with changes in average conditions representing a climate with altered timing, intensity, and types of extremes.” In a study published in World Development, we show that extreme precipitation could have disproportionately negative consequences on poverty levels in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA), including reducing food availability and agricultural income and increasing commodity prices. Unexpectedly, dry spells seem to have a comparatively uncertain impact on welfare conditions.
[学术文献] The impact of climate changes on agriculture export trade in Pakistan: Evidence from time‐series analysis 进入全文
Growth and Change
Agriculture is one of the primary contributors to Pakistan's economy. However, over the last few decades, the atmospheric carbon dioxide emission has been amplified to a great extent in Pakistan. This amplification may cause climate change, global warming, and environmental mitigation in Pakistan. This paper empirically investigates the impact of CO2 emissions on the agricultural export trade of Pakistan over the period 1975–2017. Evidence suggests that climate change could be a primary cause for the decline in Pakistan's agriculture export trade; no studies have been carried out for this specific issue, particularly over time. In this paper, the empirical analysis suggests the negative coefficient of agriculture export trade with CO2 emissions subsequently decreases agriculture export trade, which leads to direct impact on Pakistan's economy. Both theoretical and empirical outcomes suggest that the adaptation of clean and green energies and technologies are the key to reduce pollution in Pakistan. Overall, the effects of carbon dioxide emissions on agriculture export trade are stronger in the long‐run dynamics, thus making the finding heterogeneous. Possible initiatives should be taken by the government of Pakistan to improve the agriculture sector and it should also introduce new policies to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide.
Economic and Political Weekly
Broadly, two lines of arguments characterise the policy debate regarding the ideal delivery mechanism for the public distribution system (PDS) of foodgrains. The first supports a gradual move towards a system based on food coupons or direct cash transfers (DCT), either of which could be used at private retail like a standard food stamp (Kotwal et al 2011; Chaudhuri and Somanathan 2011). The alternative argument supports reforms of the existing PDS of in-kind transfers (Khera 2011) with increased monitoring and enforcement, and expansion of coverage well past the current below poverty line (BPL) population, making it more extensive as well as more generous.