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[学术文献] A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production 进入全文

Science Advances

Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield–related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance of species richness, abundance, and dominance for pollination; biological pest control; and final yields in the context of ongoing land-use change. Pollinator and enemy richness directly supported ecosystem services in addition to and independent of abundance and dominance. Up to 50% of the negative effects of landscape simplification on ecosystem services was due to richness losses of service-providing organisms, with negative consequences for crop yields. Maintaining the biodiversity of ecosystem service providers is therefore vital to sustain the flow of key agroecosystem benefits to society.

[学术文献] Climate and poverty in Africa South of the Sahara 进入全文

World Development

To estimate the effects of weather conditions on welfare globally, cross-country comparisons need to rely on international poverty lines and comparable data sources at the micro-level. To this end, nationally representative household surveys can offer a useful instrument, also at the sub-national level. This study seeks to expand the existing knowledge on the determinants of poverty in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA), examining how long-term climatic conditions and year-specific weather shocks affect expenditure per capita. We take advantage of a novel and unique dataset combining consumption-based household surveys for 24 SSA countries -representative of more than half of the African population and two thirds of SSA- and geospatial information on agro-climatic conditions, market access and other spatial covariates of poverty. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a welfare-based, multidisciplinary, micro-level dataset with such wide spatial coverage has been assembled and examined. Our analysis relies on a linear and spatial model at the household- and district-level, respectively, both controlling for socio-economic, demographic, and geographic confounding factors. Results are consistent across econometric approaches, showing that living in more humid areas is positively associated with welfare, while the opposite occurs living in hotter areas, as existing literature shows. Flood shocks -defined as annual rainfall higher than one standard deviation from the 50-year average- are associated to a 35% decrease in total and food per-capita consumption and 17 percentage point increase in extreme poverty. On the other hand, extreme shortages of rain and heat shocks show an uncertain effect, even when estimates control for spatial correlation between welfare and weather conditions using the spatial error correction model. Given the heterogeneous effects of climatic events across SSA macro-regions, local-specific adaptation and mitigation strategies are suggested to help bringing households on a sustainable path.

[学术文献] Does foreign capital really matter for the host country agricultural production? Evidence from developing countries 进入全文

Review of World Economics

Despite the high flow of foreign assistance and foreign direct investment (FDI) to developing countries, the potential of agricultural production remains low and stagnant. Accordingly, it is interesting to know how each type of foreign capital (FDI and foreign aid) affects the agricultural output? And what are the most effective forms of aid that increase agricultural production? The main objective of this study is to give answers to these equations using data for 50 developing countries over the 1995–2015 period. Our results indicate, first, that the effect of FDI only (without foreign aid) has a positive and significant effect on agricultural production. Second, we found that the four forms of foreign aids [notably social-infrastructure-aid (SIA), investment aid, non-investment-aid, agriculture–forestry–fishing-aid (AFFA)] have positive and significant effects on agricultural production. Finally, when we introduced both variables in the model, we found that FDI and two types of foreign aids (SIA and AFFA) have positive and significant effects on agricultural production. In conclusion, the synergies inherent between FDI, SIA, AFFA, increase twice the agricultural production.

[学术文献] 中国与东盟农业合作发展历程及趋势展望 进入全文

经济纵横

多年来,中国与东盟的农业合作走过了从无到有、从缓慢到加速、从封闭半封闭到贸易自由化的历程,国家间贸易往来不断增加,投资合作迅速增长,科技合作成效显著。由于东盟各国经济发展水平不同,未来中国与其农业合作也有着不同的合作前景和重点:对高收入国家将以互利贸易为主,对新兴国家以投资与贸易合作并重,对大湄公河次区域国家则以资源开发利用和投资合作为主,与战略节点国家的基础建设合作将进一步加强。目前,世界正处于构建人类命运共同体的有利时机,加强中国与东盟农业合作既具有地缘优势,也符合各国长远愿景。同时,中国与东盟农业合作仍面临国内制度不完善、东盟内部差异大、基础设施尚待加强等不利因素。对此,中国需进一步加强交流,促进农业文化合作,塑造地区农业强国形象;加快拓展多层次合作,逐步走向全方位战略合作;推进与东盟战略节点国家的合作,加强交通基础设施建设;加强支持与引导,促进农业企业有序"走出去";加强民间农业合作交流,大力促进企业参与农业合作。 

[学术文献] “一带一路”发展与我国农业经济供给侧结构改革 进入全文

农业经济

"一带一路"是我国对外贸易改革创新的重要战略,农业经济供给侧结构改革是我国农业现代化建设的重要构成,推进"一带一路"与农业经济供给侧结构改革是当前深化改革的集中体现,特别是宏观经济背景下,借助"一带一路"战略的契机,从结构调整、绿色发展和创新驱动等方面推动农业改革,有助于实现农业外向型发展的目标。

[学术文献] 中国与“21世纪海上丝绸之路”沿线国家农产品贸易研究——基于竞争性、互补性和贸易潜力的视角 进入全文

现代经济探讨

该文基于联合国商品贸易数据库中2007-2016年的数据,采用显示性比较优势指数、贸易互补性指数及贸易强度指数分别从贸易竞争性、互补性以及贸易潜力三个角度对中国与"21世纪海上丝绸之路"沿线国家的农产品贸易特征进行了分析。研究结果显示:中国与沿线国家在多章产品上均存在较强的竞争性,但各国农产品的出口优势存在显著差异;中国与沿线国家存在较强的贸易互补性,但以中国为出口国计算的贸易互补性明显强于以中国为进口国计算的贸易互补性;中国与沿线国家在多章产品上均有较大的贸易潜力,尤其以马来西亚、泰国、印度尼西亚等为代表的东盟国家。 

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