African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs, affecting domestic and wild pigs of all ages and sexes. The disease is the cause of major economic losses, threatens food security and safe trade, and challenges sustained swine production in affected countries. Since ASF emergence in Georgia in 2007, the disease has spread to many countries in Europe and in 2018 was detected in East Asia, where over 60 percent of global domestic pig inventories are found. The spread of the African swine virus genotype II into the Eurasiatic wild pig population was unprecedented; the increased densities in wild pig that had taken place in eastern and central Europe over the past few decades was a prime environment for the ASF virus to expand its geographical distributional range. Climate change and extensive cereal production enhanced local wild pig densities and expanded their geographical distribution. Besides these general tendencies, hunting management boosted wildlife abundance by curbing the hunting of wild sows thereby maintaining or increasing the localreproductive stock. They created winter feeding areas aimed at preventing the once-typical demographic crashes of the wild pig populations due to scarce food availability determined by the forest tree seed (mast) cycles. These areas promoted higher fecundity and fertility parameters. As a result, in most of Eurasia, wild pig management practices have artificially increased both abundance and geographical distribution of wild boars by bypassing the natural carrying capacity of the environment.
欧洲工业在我们的日常生活中无处不在：从我们建造的房屋、购买的家具、穿着的衣服、吃的食物、获得的医疗保健、使用的能源和运输工具，到我们生活中一直存在的物品和产品。凭借其熟练的劳动力以及在质量和可持续性方面的全球声誉，欧洲工业对欧洲及其繁荣至关重要。今天，全欧洲有5200万人及其家庭直接或间接地从工业部门的就业中受益。我们的供应链由成千上万的创新型中小企业和较大的供应商组成，正向世界各地输出欧洲卓越的工业产品。2008年金融危机之后，欧洲失去了数百万个制造业岗位，每一次都给人类和社会带来了巨大的后果。欧洲的就业水平仍低于危机前的水平，就业仍然容易受到令人担忧的国际趋势的影响，其中包括贸易保护主义的加剧。 欧盟现在需要一个雄心勃勃的产业战略，以帮助其与中国、印度和美国等已将工业置于其政治议程首位的全球其它地区竞争。因此，Industry4Europe联盟热烈欢迎2019年3月欧洲理事会的结论，国家元首和政府首脑邀请欧盟委员会“在2019年底之前提出欧盟工业未来的长期愿景，采取具体措施加以实施”，以应对“欧洲工业面临的挑战并触及所有相关政策领域”。 2019年7月，欧委会主席乌苏拉•冯•德莱恩（Ursula von der Leyen）在下一届欧盟委员会2019-2024年的政治指导方针中表示:“我将提出面向未来的经济计划，即我们的新工业战略。”最近，她证实欧盟委员会正在准备一份“面向欧洲工业未来的全面长期战略”，该战略将“涵盖影响工业及其竞争力的所有方面，从投资和公共采购到贸易、技能、创新和支持中小型企业”。这份联合文件是各工业部门之间数月的讨论和建立共识的结果，所有这些部门都愿意为这一备受期待的“欧洲工业未来全面长期战略”的编制做出贡献。 在欧盟正在讨论下一个“多年期金融框架”的关键时刻，我们比以往任何时候都更加愿意与我们的欧洲机构加强合作，以讨论和实施一项雄心勃勃的欧盟工业战略，这将有助于欧洲继续成为一个领先的、智能的、创新的和可持续发展的工业中心，提供优质的工作并使所有欧洲人和未来几代人受益。
From Brazil to Canada to France, China has expanded trade relations to help ensure it has adequate supplies of meat while it rides out the African swine fever crisis. In recent weeks China has accelerated steps both at home and abroad to head off pork shortages and stem rising prices. Although African swine fever was first reported in China more than a year ago, it wasn’t until months later that the depth of the crisis became apparent. To secure more meat imports, China has forged new trade ties and patched up problematic old ones. At home, the country has retrofitted pork processing plants to boost production of other meats. And it has leaned on institutional facilities, such as schools and hotels, to shift meal offerings to chicken instead of pork. The measures appear to be having some success, and retail pork prices in China, which hit a recent peak in late October, have since dropped by 20%.
Brazil’s soybean crop appears headed for record production this year, giving a boost to the South American country’s long-term pursuit of dominance in the global soybean market. Brazil has taken advantage of the US-China trade war to continue its drive for soybean expansion, even as US farmers retrench. The South American country has added 65% to its soybean planted area in the past decade, with 3% growth expected this year. Crop yields are also forecast to move higher, following gains totaling 23% in the past 10 years. And Brazil is giving high priority to internal logistics, such as improving key transportation routes and expanding port capacity, to smooth the path of getting its soybeans to world markets. This year, Brazil’s crop size is expected to best the US by a stunning 27%. By contrast, US output topped Brazil’s by 10% as recently as 2015. To be sure, China has played a big role in those countries’ reversed positions. Beijing has levied tariffs on US soybeans as part of the trade war and has proposed a billion-dollar investment in Brazilian infrastructure to secure long-term supply of the soybeans it needs.
The share of working-age young people in Africa south of the Sahara has risen due to past declines in mortality coupled with high fertility. This “youth bulge” has created a sense of urgency among national governments and the international development community as the prospect of widespread youth unemployment in Africa, and the social instability and political unrest it could bring, looms closer. As a result, African governments are under pressure to create more and better jobs for the region’s young and rapidly growing population. Although the scale of policy reforms and actions needed to address Africa’s youth bulge is daunting, there is an increasing alignment of interests and incentives: African governments have made youth employment a policy priority, and African youth are demanding policies that improve their job prospects. This creates promising opportunities to enact policies that effectively address rural youth employment—policies that are grounded in local evidence rather than stylized facts.