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[前沿资讯] 乌克兰农业部:2019/20年度迄今谷物出口已达1190万吨 进入全文

中国农业信息网

据乌克兰农业部称,2019/20年度迄今为止,乌克兰已经出口谷物1190万吨,高于上年同期的780万吨。其中小麦出口量为727万吨,大麦266万吨,玉米192万吨。乌克兰计划今年收获至少7100万吨谷物,基本上与上年同期持平。农业部尚未发布谷物出口预测数据。2018/19年度乌克兰谷物出口量达到创纪录的5000万吨。  

[学术文献] How far has Africa gone in achieving the zero hunger target? Evidence from Nigeria 进入全文

Global Food Security

Sustainable Development Goal 2 is hinged on achieving zero hunger, worldwide, by the year 2030. Many developing countries, especially African countries, are faced with extreme hunger often caused or compounded by bad governance, conflicts and climate change. In this paper, we review patterns of Global Hunger Index scores across Africa from 2000 to 2018 noting advances and setbacks in the fight against hunger in relation to the underlying causes of hunger in these nations, using Nigeria, the poverty capital of the world, as a case study. We also review selected policies of the Nigerian government and development partners aimed at reducing hunger in Nigeria and proffer solutions that can help actualise the target of zero hunger by 2030.

[学术文献] Understanding the Spatial Distribution of Welfare Impacts of Global Warming on Agriculture and Its Drivers 进入全文

American Journal of Agricultural Economics

This paper explores the interplay between the biophysical and economic geographies of climate change impacts on agriculture. It does so by bridging the extensive literature on climate impacts on yields and physical productivity in global crop production, with the literature on the role of adaptation through international trade in determining the consequences of climate change impacts. Unlike previous work in this area, instead of using a specific crop model or a set of models, we employ a statistical meta-analysis that encompasses all studies available to the IPCC-AR5 report. This permits us to isolate specific elements of the spatially heterogeneous biophysical geography of climate impacts, including the role of initial temperature, differential patterns of warming, and varying crop responses to warming across the globe. We combine these climate impact estimates with the Global Trade Analysis Project model of global trade in order to estimate the national welfare changes that are decomposed into three components: the direct (biophysical impact) contribution to welfare, the terms of trade effect, and the allocative efficiency effect. We find that when we remove the spatial variation in climate impacts, the terms of trade impacts are cut in half. Given the inherent heterogeneity of climate impacts in agriculture, this points to the important role of trade in distributing the associated welfare impacts. When we allow the biophysical impacts to vary across the empirically estimated uncertainty range taken from the meta-analysis, we find that the welfare consequences are highly asymmetric, with much larger losses at the low end of the yield distribution. This interaction between the magnitude and heterogeneity of biophysical climate shocks and their welfare effects highlight the need for detailed representation of both in projecting climate change impacts.

[学术文献] Big is efficient: Evidence from agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia 进入全文

Agricultural economics

In Ethiopia, there is a renewed interest in agricultural cooperatives as an institutional tool to improve the welfare of smallholder farmers. One of the pathways through which cooperatives benefit their members is scale economies. However, the establishment of cooperatives in Ethiopia seems to pay little attention to the size of the organizations. This article aims at investigating the effect of size on cost efficiency of agricultural cooperatives. More specifically, the purpose is to examine whether a single cooperative can serve a given number of farmers at a lower cost than two or more smaller cooperatives could. We employ the concept of cost subadditivity to compare the cost efficiency of large versus small cooperatives, and by extension unilateral actions. We estimate a flexible production technology using cross‐sectional cooperative‐level data. Findings show that costs would drop by 78% to 181% if farmers join hands in relatively large rather than small cooperatives.

[学术文献] 对外投资、东道国金融生态与支点国家选择——基于对“一带一路”国家的研究 进入全文

国际经贸探索

中国对"一带一路"沿线的投资,需要选择支点国家作为突破口。因此,文章通过相关理论研究,认为东道国区位优势与投资效率可作为支点国家选择的重要指标。基于Heckman选择模型的分析,认为中国倾向于向低收入、资源与技术要素丰富、政治友好及贸易开放的国家提供投资。然后,通过对各国的聚类分析,并利用拓展的SFA模型及各国金融生态的评估表明,不同区位类型国家的金融生态环境对中国在该国的OFDI效率有显著影响,总体上两指标呈现显著的正相关关系。结合地理地缘因素,应选择金融生态环境良好,OFDI效率较高的国家为支点国家,通过发挥示范效应以推进"一带一路"建设。 

[学术文献] 邻国汇率效应对中国与“一带一路”国家贸易的影响——基于动态空间计量模型的实证分析 进入全文

亚太经济

利用动态空间SDM模型对邻国视角下汇率变动对中国与"一带一路"国家双边贸易的影响进行研究,研究结果发现:邻国汇率效应对中国与"一带一路"国家双边贸易确实存在显著影响,但由于"加总偏误"的存在,邻国汇率效应的影响在整体层面和行业层面上有较大差异;邻国汇率效应在整体层面上的影响比邻国贸易效应的影响小,但在行业层面上,邻国汇率效应的影响普遍比邻国贸易效应的影响大;中国与"一带一路"国家双边贸易关系并非传统认为的"竞争抑制"的对立关系,而是稳定可持续的"互利共赢"的共生关系,并在"一带一路"倡议提出之后更加明显,行业层面的分析进一步证实了共生关系的存在。

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