[前沿资讯] The contribution of photosynthesis traits and plant height components to plant height in wheat at the individual quantitative trait locus level 进入全文
本发明公开了一种筛选不同穗粒数和单株产量小麦的方法及其使用的试剂盒。该方法包括如下步骤：检测待测小麦基于TaSAP2A基因的基因型为基因型I还是基因型II；基因型I的小麦为基于InDel位点的核苷酸为T的小麦；基因型II的小麦为基于所述InDel位点的核苷酸缺失的小麦；InDel位点为小麦基因组中SEQ ID NO：3自5’末端起的第1527位核苷酸；基因型I的小麦的单株产量>基因型II的小麦的单株产量；基因型I的小麦的穗粒数>基因型II的小麦的穗粒数；基因型I的小麦的株高<基因型II的小麦的株高。本发明在小麦分子标记辅助育种过程中具有重要的应用价值。
Aegilops species have significantly contributed to wheat breeding despite the difficulties involved in the handling of wild species, such as crossability and incompatibility. A number of biotic resistance genes have been identified and incorporated into wheat varieties from Aegilops species, and this genus is also contributing toward improvement of complex traits such as yield and abiotic tolerance for drought and heat. The D genome diploid species of Aegilops tauschii has been utilized most often in wheat breeding programs. Other Aegilops species are more difficult to utilize in the breeding because of lower meiotic recombination frequencies; generally they can be utilized only after extensive and time-consuming procedures in the form of translocation/introgression lines. After the emergence of Ug99 stem rust and wheat blast threats, Aegilops species gathered more attention as a form of new resistance sources. This article aims to update recent progress on Aegilops species, as well as to cover new topics around their use in wheat breeding.
[学术文献] An Overexpressed Q Allele Leads to Increased Spike Density and Improved Processing Quality in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 进入全文
Spike density and processing quality are important traits in modern wheat production and are controlled by multiple gene loci. The associated genes have been intensively studied and new discoveries have been constantly reported during the past few decades. However, no gene playing a significant role in the development of these two traits has been identified. In the current study, a common wheat mutant with extremely compact spikes and good processing quality was isolated and characterized. A new allele (Qc1) of the Q gene (an important domestication gene) responsible for the mutant phenotype was cloned, and the molecular mechanism for the mutant phenotype was studied. Results revealed that Qc1 originated from a point mutation that interferes with the miRNA172-directed cleavage of Q transcripts, leading to its overexpression. It also reduces the longitudinal cell size of rachises, resulting in an increased spike density. Furthermore, Qc1 increases the number of vascular bundles, which suggests a higher efficiency in the transportation of assimilates in the spikes of the mutant than that of wild type. This accounts for the improved processing quality. The effects of Qc1 on spike density and wheat processing quality were confirmed by analyzing nine common wheat mutants possessing four different Qc alleles. These results deepen our understanding of the key roles of Q gene, and provide new insights for the potential application of Qc alleles in wheat quality breeding.
Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) is a leading cereal contributing to the nourishment of humankind. Since its domestication ca. 12,000 years ago, humans have profoundly influenced its evolution. In the more recent past, breeding via cross‐hybridization and the selection of progeny with superior end‐use quality have moved from solely phenotyping (e.g., bread baking quality), to a more detailed genetic approach of selecting genes, alleles, and whole‐genome structure for desirable traits.The present review provides a brief historical summary of wheat improvement for end-use quality. In the last ~150 years, wheat improvement has benefited from advances in genetics, chemistry and biotechnology. In the past couple decades, rapid advances in DNA and next-generation sequencing technology have promised a revolution in wheat improvement. The various technologies are reviewed here.The “future” of wheat improvement may involve the whole-genome-based analysis, “genomic selection.” However, to date, the plethora of QTL generated over the recent years have largely remained unused. Wheat is vital to the survival of humankind, and new cultivars must be continually developed. These cultivars should have high quality for processing and consumer products. An important means of breeding and selecting for high quality is through rapidly evolving genome-based technologies.
[前沿资讯] Domestication-driven changes in plant traits associated with changes in the assembly of the rhizosphere microbiota in tetraploid wheat 进入全文