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[相关专利] 一种配方小麦生产用种的配制方法 进入全文

国家知识产权局专利检索及分析

       本发明公开了一种配方小麦生产用种的配制方法,属于特种小麦育种和种子生产技术领域。本发明选用不同籽粒颜色、糯性及抗病性的小麦品种为杂交亲本,分别配制出具有杂合性状的父母本,该杂合性状的父母本配制生产配方小麦生产用种,生产用种抗性好,种植后收割的麦子,其麦粒为多种类型麦粒的混合,该混合麦籽粒分别具有糯性、非糯性及部分糯性,颜色有绿、红、紫、黑、白等5种颜色,集香、色、味和营养疗效于一身,市场销售价格高,农民种植每亩可增加经济效益600-800元。

[学术文献] Nitrogen use efficiency is regulated by interacting proteins relevant to development in wheat 进入全文

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL

  小麦的氮素利用效率(NUE)比较低,并且控制氮素利用率的遗传机制尚不清楚。对一个主要的与氮素有关的农艺性状数量性状位点进行定位克隆,结果表明春化基因TaVRN-A1与小麦氮素利用率影响基因TaNUE1密切相关。由于Ala(180)/Val(180)的取代,TaVRN-A1a和TaVRN-A1b蛋白与TaANR1相互作用不同,TaANR1是一种由硝酸拟南芥小麦同源体编码的蛋白质,调控1 (ANR1)。TaVRN-A1和TaANR1的转录均受氮素水平的调节。TaANR1是TaANR1的功能表征:RNAi转基因小麦,在自然突变体中,缺失23bp,包括gDNA序列中第5内含子50端的10-bp和第6外显子13bp,产生缺乏完整84bp外显子6的转录本。TaANR1和TaHOX1都与tavrna - a1的Ala(180)/Val(180)位置相结合。将来自tavrna - a1、TaANR1和TaHOX1的有利等位基因遗传结合,使该地区的粮食产量从9.84%提高到11.58%。调控氮素基因等位变异的分子标记可用于改良小麦新品种氮素利用率和产量的育种计划。

[学术文献] Mechanisms of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain storage proteins in response to nitrogen application and its impacts on processing quality 进入全文

Nature

      Basis for the effects of nitrogen (N) on wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) and on the establishment of processing quality are far from clear. The response of GSPs and processing quality parameters to four N levels of four common wheat cultivars were investigated at two sites over two growing seasons. Except gluten index (GI), processing quality parameters as well as GSPs quantities were remarkably improved by increasing N level. N level explained 4.2~59.2% and 10.4~80.0% variability in GSPs fractions and processing quality parameters, respectively. The amount of N remobilized from vegetative organs except spike was significantly increased when enhancing N application. GSPs fractions and processing quality parameters except GI were only highly and positively correlated with the amount of N remobilized from stem with sheath. N reassimilation in grain was remarkably strengthened by the elevated activity and expression level of glutamine synthetase. Transcriptome analysis showed the molecular mechanism of seeds in response to N levels during 10~35 days post anthesis. Collectively, we provided comprehensive understanding of N-responding mechanisms with respect to wheat processing quality from N source to GSPs biosynthesis at the agronomic, physiological and molecular levels, and screened candidate genes for quality breeding.

[学术文献] Targeted mutagenesis in wheat microspores using CRISPR/Cas9 进入全文

Nature

     CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing is a transformative technology that will facilitate the development of crops to meet future demands. However, application of gene editing is hindered by the long life cycle of many crop species and because desired genotypes generally require multiple generations to achieve. Single-celled microspores are haploid cells that can develop into double haploid plants and have been widely used as a breeding tool to generate homozygous plants within a generation. In this study, we combined the CRISPR/Cas9 system with microspore technology and developed an optimized haploid mutagenesis system to induce genetic modifications in the wheat genome. We investigated a number of factors that may affect the delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 reagents into microspores and found that electroporation of a minimum of 75,000 cells using 10–20 µg DNA and a pulsing voltage of 500 V is optimal for microspore transfection using the Neon transfection system. Using multiple Cas9 and sgRNA constructs, we present evidence for the seamless introduction of targeted modifications in an exogenous DsRed gene and two endogenous wheat genes, including TaLox2 and TaUbiL1. This study demonstrates the value and feasibility of combining microspore technology and CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing for trait discovery and improvement in plants.

[前沿资讯] Genome of wheat ancestor sequenced 进入全文

EurekAlert

     由于面包小麦基因组的大规模和复杂性,对它的测序一直被认为是一项几乎不可逾越的任务。然而,它对全球粮食供应至关重要。如今,由加州大学戴维斯分校(University of California, Davis)研究人员领导的一个国际科学家团队,通过对一种名为羊齿草(Aegilops tauschii)的野生面包小麦祖先的基因组进行测序,向解决这个难题又迈进了一步。在11月15日发表在《自然》(Nature)杂志上的这项研究中,研究人员将先进技术结合起来,为羊齿草生成了具有参考质量的基因组序列。羊齿草是一种适应能力强、耐受能力强的植物,它也是小麦面粉加工成面包的特性基因的主要来源。这些发现将使研究人员能够发现新的基因,这些基因可以提高小麦的烘焙质量、抗病能力以及对霜冻、干旱和盐碱度等极端环境条件的耐受性。这项研究已经取得了一个实际成果:发现了两种新的小麦茎锈病抗性基因。

[相关专利] 一种抗病的小麦-黑麦7BS .7RL染色体易位系的培育方法及应用 进入全文

国家知识产权局专利检索及分析

      本发明公开了一种抗病的小麦- 黑麦7BS .7RL染色体易位系的培育方法,该方法包括以下步骤:以绵阳11为受体,白粒黑麦为供体进行杂交,得到F1代材料,进行染色体数目加倍处理,得到小麦-黑麦双二倍体材料,然后与绵阳11连续回交2次,选出小麦-黑麦7R单体附加系,然后进行自交,获得7BS .7RL易位系,本发明还公开了一种由上述培育方法选育得到的抗病的小麦-黑麦7BS .7RL染色体易位系以及该易位系在小麦育种中的应用。本发明有利于新抗病基因的转移和利用,由于7RL不含黑麦碱基因,对小麦的加工品质质不会造成负面影响。

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