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[专业会议] “全国小麦抗病抗逆遗传育种研讨会”第二轮通知 进入全文

中国作物学会

小麦是我国最重要的粮食作物之一,高温干旱、病虫害等逆境胁迫是限制小麦产量持续增长的重要因素。为充分了解国内外小麦抗病抗逆遗传育种领域的最新研究进展,为我国特别是西北地区小麦遗传育种与栽培技术研究领域专家提供良好的交流合作平台,由中国作物学会主办,中国农业科学院作物科学研究所、甘肃省作物学会、甘肃省旱地冬小麦种质创新与应用工程研究中心等单位协办,陇东学院承办的“全国小麦抗病抗逆遗传育种研讨会”定于2019年11月上旬在甘肃省庆阳市召开。大会内容包括小麦基因资源挖掘、小麦抗病抗逆遗传、小麦分子育种和小麦抗病抗逆育种栽培技术等研究领域的最新研究进展,会议将邀请该领域知名专家作学术报告。我们诚挚邀请全国从事相关研究的专家学者和研究生参加本次大会。

[前沿资讯] 农业农村部部署全国秋冬种工作 力争冬小麦面积稳定在3.3亿亩以上 进入全文

中华人民共和国农业农村部

会议强调,各级农业农村部门要深入推进农业供给侧结构性改革,着力稳产能、提质量、优结构、转方式,力争冬小麦面积稳定在3.3亿亩以上,优质专用麦比例比上年提高2个百分点,冬油菜面积稳定在1亿亩以上。下气力落实秋冬种面积。认真落实好小麦最低收购价、产粮(油)大县奖励和耕地轮作休耕制度试点等政策,引导扩种夏收粮油作物,鼓励开发冬闲田种植油菜。高标准推进秋冬种作业。充分发挥农机主力军作用,提高整地播种质量。同时,因地制宜落实好种子包衣等关键技术。优化秋冬种品种结构和区域布局。小麦要突出抓好优质强筋和弱筋品种,油菜重点发展低芥酸、低硫苷“双低”品种,以及高产、高油、高油酸“三高”新品种。加快转变秋冬种生产方式。深入开展化肥农药使用量零增长行动,提高投入品使用效率。大力发展社会化、专业化的生产性服务,集约高效推进秋冬种生产。此外,还要统筹做好秋粮收获、冬季农业开发、农产品质量安全、农产品产销衔接等重点工作,确保全年农业生产圆满收官。

[学术文献] Bread wheat: a role model for plant domestication and breeding 进入全文

Springer

Bread wheat is one of the most important crops in the world. Its domestication coincides with the beginning of agriculture and since then, it has been constantly under selection by humans. Its breeding has followed millennia of cultivation, sometimes with unintended selection on adaptive traits, and later by applying intentional but empirical selective pressures. For more than one century, wheat breeding has been based on science, and has been constantly evolving due to on farm agronomy and breeding program improvements. The aim of this work is to briefly review wheat breeding, with emphasis on the current advances.Improving yield potential, resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and baking quality, have been priorities for breeding this cereal, however, new objectives are arising, such as biofortification enhancement. The narrow genetic diversity and complexity of its genome have hampered the breeding progress and the application of biotechnology. Old approaches, such as the introgression from relative species, mutagenesis, and hybrid breeding are strongly reappearing, motivated by an accumulation of knowledge and new technologies. A revolution has taken place regarding the use of molecular markers whereby thousands of plants can be routinely genotyped for thousands of loci. After 13 years, the wheat reference genome sequence and annotation has finally been completed, and is currently available to the scientific community. Transgenics, an unusual approach for wheat improvement, still represents a potential tool, however it is being replaced by gene editing, whose technology along with genomic selection, speed breeding, and high-throughput phenotyping make up the most recent frontiers for future wheat improvement.Agriculture and plant breeding are constantly evolving, wheat has played a major role in these processes and will continue through decades to come.

[学术文献] Economic benefits of blast-resistant biofortified wheat in Bangladesh: The case of BARI Gom 33 进入全文

Elsevier

The first occurrence of wheat blast in 2016 threatened Bangladesh’s already precarious food security situation. The Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), together with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) developed and released the wheat variety BARI Gom 33 that is resistant to wheat blast and other common diseases. The new variety provides a 5–8% yield gain over the available popular varieties, as well as being zinc enriched. This study examines the potential economic benefits of BARI Gom 33 in Bangladesh. First, applying a climate analogue model, this study identified that more than 55% of the total wheat-growing area in Bangladesh (across 45 districts) is vulnerable to wheat blast. Second, applying an ex-ante impact assessment framework, this study shows that with an assumed cumulative adoption starting from 2019–20 and increasing to 30% by 2027–28, the potential economic benefits of the newly developed wheat variety far exceeds its dissemination cost by 2029–30. Even if dissemination of the new wheat variety is limited to only the ten currently blast-affected districts, the yearly average net benefits could amount to USD 0.23–1.6 million. Based on the findings, international funder agencies are urged to support the national system in scaling out the new wheat variety and wheat research in general to ensure overall food security in Bangladesh and South Asia.

[学术文献] Genome-wide association study revealed that the TaGW8 gene was associated with kernel size in Chinese bread wheat 进入全文

Nature

利用小麦90k SNP(单核苷酸多态性)分析方法,以及GWAS(全基因组关联分析)对中国面包小麦的核相关性状在14个环境中进行关联定位。结果表明,4417和3172对籽粒长度和千粒重有显著影响的单核苷酸多态性中,996和953位于7B染色体上。通过对这些SNPs在7B上的单倍型分析,得到预测的TaGW8-B1基因。在面包小麦中通过测序进一步克隆了TaGW8-B1基因,在第一内含子中发现了276-bp 的InDel。不含276-bp索引的TaGW8-B1和带 276-bp索引的TaGW8-B1分别被命名为TaGW8-B1a和TaGW8-B1b。农艺性状分析表明,与TaGW8-B1b品种相比,TaGW8-B1a品种具有较宽的籽粒宽度、较高的穗粒数、较长的穗长、较高的千粒重和较多的小穗数。此外,TaGW8-B1a品种的产量显著高于TaGW8-B1b品种。因此,TaGW8-B1a被认为是一个潜在的优势等位基因。同时,经qRT-PCR检测,TaGW8-B1a在成熟种子中的表达水平明显高于TaGW8-B1b。这可能提示TaGW8-B1的高表达与面包小麦籽粒大小呈正相关。TaGW8-B1等位基因的分布表明,TaGW8-B1a在中国小麦中已被积极选择。

[前沿资讯] Plant biotransformation of T2 and HT2 toxin in cultured organs of Triticum durum Desf 进入全文

Nature

本研究旨在通过培养植物器官,研究5个硬粒小麦品种对T2和HT2毒性物质的吸收和生物转化。7日后,T2毒性物质几乎全部被吸收,与植物同时形成HT2,而未受感染的植物器官对HT2的吸收较慢。非靶向质谱分析可以识别出大量的一期和二期代谢物,结果是26个T2和23个HT2代谢物加上试验性的同分异构体。首次揭示了小麦中一种新的潜伏霉菌毒素3-乙酰-HT2-葡萄糖苷。体外方法证实了它的潜力,即研究植物代谢在潜伏真菌毒素生物合成中的贡献,并预见生物催化工具的发展,以开发类似自然的混合物作为参考材料。

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