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[前沿资讯] Efficient curation of genebanks using next generation sequencing reveals substantial duplication of germplasm accessions 进入全文

Nature

基因库是植物育种家和遗传学家通过获取、异地保存和共享独特种质来改良作物的宝贵资源。由于有超过700万的现有资源需要存储,存储需求和成本不断增长,基因库需要高效的特性描述和管理,以使它们更容易被获得和利用,并降低运营成本,这样,作物改良团队就能更有效地利用尚未开发的新遗传多样性的巨大资源。然而,共享和不一致的种质资源往往会导致无意中复制的集合,其特征性较差,并且许多相同的配种在没有认证信息和不匹配的登记标识符的情况下难以或不可能被识别。在这里,我们用一个具有高成本效益的下一代测序平台来发现和消除重复,展示了如何利用这些加入的基因型信息。我们识别并鉴定了50%以上的重复品系,包括小麦的重要野生亲缘关系和小麦改良的遗传多样性来源,提供了一种用以识别和删除基因库内和基因库之间的相同加入,并管理全球唯一的加入途径。我们还展示了如何将这种方法应用于未来的采集工作,以避免相同资源的积累。当在全球基因库之间进行协调时,这种方法将最终实现对种质的高成本效益管理。

[学术文献] Can genomics deliver climate-change ready crops? 进入全文

Current Opinion in Plant Biology

发展具有气候适应性的作物,加速作物的遗传增益,需要不同学科/技术的整合,以观察其对农民、农田的影响。在这篇综述中,总结了我们是如何利用种质资源集合,通过基于NGS的测序方法来识别优良的等位基因/单倍型,以及基因组技术与精确的表型技术在作物育种中的应用。前期育种和基因组学辅助育种方法将有助于更有效地开发气候适应性作物。预计多个学科/技术的融合将促进在更短的时间内研发可应对气候变化的作物。

[相关专利] 一种辅助鉴定小麦冠层温度性状的方法及其专用引物组 进入全文

国家知识产权局专利检索及分析

本发明公开了一种辅助鉴定小麦冠层温度性状的方法及其专用引物组。本发明提供了特异引物组,由序列1所示引物A、序列2所示引物B和序列3所示引物C组成。本发明还保护一种鉴定待测小麦的冠层温度性状的方法,包括如下步骤:检测待测小麦基于特异SNP的基因型;CC基因型小麦的冠层温度低于AA基因型小麦。本发明还保护一种鉴定待测小麦的冠层温度性状的方法,包括如下步骤:以待测小麦的基因组DNA为模板,采用所述引物组进行KASP,进行荧光扫描,确定待测小麦基于特异SNP的基因型,CC基因型小麦的冠层温度低于AA基因型小麦。本发明可以用于筛选冠层温度性状优良的小麦,在培育抗旱小麦品种中发挥重要作用。

[学术文献] Influence of protein characteristics and the proportion of gluten on end-use quality in Korean wheat cultivars 进入全文

Journal of Integrative Agriculture

The effects of protein characteristics and the proportion of gluten on end-use quality in 13 Korean wheat cultivars for three years were verified in this study. Year, cultivar, and the interaction between the year and the cultivar influenced protein characteristics, the proportion of gluten except for γ- and ω-gliadin using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography), and end-use quality. Protein characteristics and the proportion of gluten in Korean wheat cultivars were between those of Australian standard white (ASW) and hard wheat (AH). Korean wheat cultivars exhibited a higher average α+β gliadin proportion than imported wheat, a γ-gliadin proportion similar to that of dark northern spring wheat, and the same ω-gliadin proportion as AH. They showed a bread-loaf volume intermediate between those of ASW and AH and a texture of cooked noodles similar to that of soft white wheat, but less springiness than imported wheat. The cookie diameter of Korean wheat cultivars was similar to that of hard red winter wheat. There was a correlation between bread-loaf volume and protein characteristics, except for the protein content in Korean wheat cultivars. Springiness and cohesiveness of cooked noodles were not correlated with protein characteristics, while hardness was correlated with the protein content and water absorption of a mixograph. Cookie diameter was negatively correlated with the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation volume and water absorption of a mixograph. The end-use quality was not correlated with any proportion of gluten composition. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the proportion of gluten was not related to the quality of the bread (both PCs, 81.3%), noodle (77.7%), and cookie (82.4%). PCA explained that Keumkang is suitable for superior bread, while Uri is good for cooked noodles and cookies.

[学术文献] Metabolomics and proteomics reveal drought-stress responses of leaf tissues from spring-wheat 进入全文

Nature

To reveal the integrative biochemical networks of wheat leaves in response to water deficient conditions, proteomics and metabolomics were applied to two spring-wheat cultivars (Bahar, drought-susceptible; Kavir, drought-tolerant). Drought stress induced detrimental effects on Bahar leaf proteome, resulting in a severe decrease of total protein content, with impairments mainly in photosynthetic proteins and in enzymes involved in sugar and nitrogen metabolism, as well as in the capacity of detoxifying harmful molecules. On the contrary, only minor perturbations were observed at the protein level in Kavir stressed leaves. Metabolome analysis indicated amino acids, organic acids, and sugars as the main metabolites changed in abundance upon water deficiency. In particular, Bahar cv showed increased levels in proline, methionine, arginine, lysine, aromatic and branched chain amino acids. Tryptophan accumulation via shikimate pathway seems to sustain auxin production (indoleacrylic acid), whereas glutamate reduction is reasonably linked to polyamine (spermine) synthesis. Kavir metabolome was affected by drought stress to a less extent with only two pathways significantly changed, one of them being purine metabolism. These results comprehensively provide a framework for better understanding the mechanisms that govern plant cell response to drought stress, with insights into molecules that can be used for crop improvement projects.

[前沿资讯] Production of wheat-doubled haploids resistant to eyespot supported by marker-assisted selection 进入全文

Electronic Journal of Biotechnology

小麦是世界上最重要的农作物之一。新的高产品种对真菌病具有较强的抗病性。本研究旨在利用标记辅助选择的双单倍体(DH)系统,加快培育抗斑点新品种的进程,将两个携带Pch1基因的高抗性育种系(KBP 0916和KBH 4942/05)与优质小麦基因型杂交,利用内肽酶EpD1和两个与Pch1位点相关的SSR标记分析了早一代的杂交植物。选择Pch1连锁的EpD1b等位基因的纯合子和杂合子基因型来生产单倍体植物。对单倍体进行了分子分析,以鉴定具有Pch1基因的植物。染色体加倍仅在Pch1基因单倍体植株上进行。最后,在田间试验中,选择了65株携带斑点抗性基因Pch1的DH株和30株不携带该基因的DH株进行斑点抗性表型分析,结果表明,与不携带该基因的相比,携带Pch1基因的DH株对斑点抗性更高,这表明在单倍体水平上的选择效率。

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