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[前沿资讯] Bacillus velezensis 5113 Induced Metabolic and Molecular Reprogramming during Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Wheat 进入全文

Nature

非生物胁迫是全球农业生产的主要限制因素。促进植物生长的根际细菌(PGPR)已被证明能提高植物对非生物胁迫的耐受性。然而,与PGPR启动应激管理相关的分子和生理变化却知之甚少。本研究旨在探讨与5113芽孢杆菌介导小麦非生物胁迫耐受能力相关的主要代谢和分子变化。将用芽孢杆菌处理的幼苗暴露于热、冷/冻或干旱胁迫下。芽孢杆菌提高了小麦在所有胁迫条件下的存活率。SPAD数据显示,5113个处理的幼苗叶绿素含量较高。利用NMR和ESI-MS对5113个处理的小麦幼苗进行了代谢谱分析,为小麦幼苗的代谢重编程提供了依据,并表明几种常见的胁迫代谢物在胁迫下有明显的积累。小麦叶片双向凝胶电泳分析了300多种蛋白质,其中有几种在不同处理间有差异表达,与干旱和高温相比,低温胁迫对蛋白质图谱的影响更大。肽图谱或序列被用于数据库搜索,以确定几个同源物。目前的研究表明,5113治疗提供包括代谢和调节功能支持生长和压力管理的系统效应。

[相关专利] 小麦雄性不育系NWMS1在构建小麦近等基因系和轮回改良群体中的应用 进入全文

国家知识产权局

本发明属于农作物育种技术领域,公开了小麦雄性不育系NWMS1在构建近等基因系和轮回改良群体中的应用。本发明采用的雄性不育系NWMS1具有综合性状优良的基因型,对白粉病免疫、育性不受环境影响、败育彻底,育种时可省去人工去雄程序,避免假杂种产生。本发明利用雄性不育系NWMS1构建小麦近等基因系的方法和构建小麦轮回改良群体的方法,省去了小麦母本去雄步骤,具有省工、省时、高效、不产生假杂种等优点。  

[学术文献] Pre-harvest measures against Fusarium spp. infection and related mycotoxins implemented by Dutch wheat farmers 进入全文

ScienceDirect

Fusarium spp. are one of the most widespread mycotoxin-producing fungi in small-grain cereals like wheat. Their rate of infection and production of mycotoxins is mainly influenced by weather and pre-harvest agronomic measures. Consequently, farmers' prevention and control of mycotoxins are imperative since it is difficult to remove mycotoxins further down the cereal supply chain. This study aimed to (i) identify which pre-harvest preventive and control measures Dutch wheat farmers currently apply against Fusarium spp. infection and mycotoxin contamination and to (ii) examine which farm and farmer characteristics explain the implementation of these measures. Field data on pre-harvest measures, like the selection of resistant varieties, fungicide use, and crop rotation, along with farm and farmer characteristics were collected from Dutch wheat farmers via an online questionnaire. Probit models were applied to examine farm and farmer characteristics that explain the implementation of pre-harvest measures. Results showed that most farmers applied six or more different measures against Fusarium spp. infection and mycotoxin contamination in wheat and that the use of pre-harvest measures is related to at least one other measure. However, results indicated that about 44% of farmers could become more effective if they implemented a benchmark approach consisting of a combination of fungicide use during flowering, selection of a Fusarium resistant wheat variety, and plowing or crop rotation. Five out of the ten evaluated farm and farmer characteristics significantly (p < 0.05) explained the implementation of at least one of the eight pre-harvest control measures. These five farm and farmer characteristics include wheat as main income crop, the use of a decision support system, the education level of the farmer, the farmer's knowledge about mycotoxins, and the farmer's level of risk aversion. Insight into relevant characteristics can be used by farmer cooperatives, processing industries and government agencies to improve the overall mycotoxin management of wheat farmers.  

[学术文献] Overexpression of a WRKY Transcription Factor TaWRKY2 Enhances Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Wheat 进入全文

Frontiers

Drought is a major environmental stress that severely restricts plant growth and crop productivity. A previous study showed that TaWRKY2 from wheat (Triticum aestivum) plays an important role in drought stress tolerance. In the present study, we isolated the promoter of TaWRKY2 and identified multiple regulatory cis-elements in the promoter region. The activity of the TaWRKY2 promoter was induced by drought, salt, heat, and abscisic acid (ABA). We also generated TaWRKY2-overexpressing transgenic wheat, and found that the transgenic seedlings exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to drought stress, as evidenced by a higher survival rate and lower water loss rate of detached leaves compared with wild type (WT) plants. In addition, the transgenic lines had higher contents of free proline, soluble sugar, and chlorophyll. During a prolonged period of drought stress before the heading stage, the growth of WT plants was inhibited, whereas the TaWRKY2-overexpressing lines progressed to the heading stage. The increased grain yield of the transgenic wheat lines reflected the cumulative effects of longer panicle length, more kernels per spike, and greater aboveground biomass. Our findings show that TaWRKY2 can enhance drought tolerance and increase grain yield in wheat, thus providing a promising candidate target for improving the drought tolerance of wheat cultivars through genetic engineering.

[学术文献] Cold Tolerance of Photosynthetic Electron Transport System Is Enhanced in Wheat Plants Grown Under Elevated CO2 进入全文

Frontiers

The effects of CO2 elevation on sensitivity of photosynthetic electron transport system of wheat in relation to low temperature stress are unclear. The performance of photosynthetic electron transport system and antioxidant system in chloroplasts was investigated in a temperature sensitive wheat cultivar Lianmai6 grown under the combination of low temperature (2 days at 2/−1°C in the day/night) and CO2 elevation (800 μmol l−1). It was found that CO2 elevation increased the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport in wheat exposed to low temperature stress, which was related to the enhanced maximum quantum yield for electron transport beyond QA and the increased quantum yield for reduction of end electron acceptors at the PSI acceptor side in plants under elevated CO2. Also, under low temperature, the activities of ATPases, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase in chloroplasts were enhanced in wheat under elevated CO2. It suggested that the cold tolerance of photosynthetic electron transport system is enhanced by CO2 elevation.

[前沿资讯] Yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with PFT in wheat 进入全文

Nature

小麦赤霉病(FHB)是世界范围内小麦的一种毁灭性病害。Fhb1是目前报道的FHB抗性育种中最稳定的数量性状位点(QTL)。在Fhb1上首次克隆了一个形成孔的类毒素(PFT)基因,发现该基因在小麦中具有FHB抗性。蛋白质经常相互作用来发挥它们的功效。因此,对与PFT相互作用的蛋白质的表征可能为PFT功能的分子机制提供信息。本研究利用小麦穗状病毒(Fg)侵染苏麦3号的小麦穗状病毒提取RNA,构建了优质酵母双杂交(Y2H)文库。PFT的凝集素结构域对酵母细胞无自激活和毒性,可用作筛选Y2H基因库的诱导。共获得23个与PFT相互作用的蛋白,主要参与泛素化,包合蛋白、氧化还原、蛋白磷酸化等过程。应用实时定量PCR技术分析了这些相互作用基因的表达模式。本研究阐明了PFT蛋白间的相互作用,并建立了小麦抗FHB的PFT调控网络。

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