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[前沿资讯] Multi-parent populations in crops: a toolbox integrating genomics and genetic mapping with breeding 进入全文

Nature

通过杂交实验获得的作物品种,使复杂性状的遗传解剖成为可能,并支持现代植物育种。在这些品种中,多亲本品种发挥着核心作用。通过混合和重组多个原始品种的基因组,多亲本品种融合了遗传品种中许多常见的有益特性。例如,它们在定位数量性状位点时具有较高的能力和分辨率,具有较高的遗传多样性和最小的种群结构。许多农作物中已建立多亲本品种,其自交系种质和相关表型、基因型数据可作为持久的资源。它们的效用已经从定位数量性状位点的工具发展为为育种计划提供种质的手段。基因组学方法,包括对原始品种的重新基因组组装和基因注释,允许将丰富的序列信息注入后代品种,扩大了多亲本品种研究和育种应用的广度。在这里,我们报道了作物多亲本品种研究的最新成果。我们还提出了一种理想的基因型、表型和种质“包装”,多亲本群体应该具有这种特性,以优化它们作为作物研究、开发和育种的强大种质资源的利用。

[前沿资讯] Genome-wide mapping and allelic fingerprinting provide insights into the genetics of resistance to wheat stripe rust in India, Kenya and Mexico 进入全文

Nature

Stripe or yellow rust (YR) caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss. is a persistent biotic-stress threatening global wheat production. To broaden our understanding of the shared genetic basis of YR resistance across multi-site and multi-year evaluations, we performed a large genome-wide association study using 43,706 YR observations on 23,346 wheat lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center evaluated between 2013 and 2019 at sites in India, Kenya and Mexico, against predominant races prevalent in the countries. We identified 114 repeatable markers tagging 20 quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with YR on ten chromosomes including 1D, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 4A, 4D, 5A, 5B and 6B, among which four QTL, QYr.cim-2DL.2, QYr.cim-2AS.1, QYr.cim-2BS.2 and QYr.cim-2BS.3 were significant in more than ten datasets. Furthermore, we report YR-associated allelic fingerprints for the largest panel of wheat breeding lines (52,067 lines) till date, creating substantial opportunities for YR favorable allele enrichment using molecular markers. Overall, the markers and fingerprints reported in this study provide excellent insights into the genetic architecture of YR resistance in different geographical regions, time-periods and wheat germplasm and are a huge resource to the global wheat breeding community for accelerating YR resistance breeding efforts.

[学术文献] Development and characterization of an EMS-mutagenized wheat population and identification of salt-tolerant wheat lines 进入全文

BMC

Triticum aestivum (wheat) is one of the world’s oldest crops and has been used for >8000 years as a food crop in North Africa, West Asia and Europe. Today, wheat is one of the most important sources of grain for humans, and is cultivated on greater areas of land than any other crop. As the human population increases and soil salinity becomes more prevalent, there is increased pressure on wheat breeders to develop salt-tolerant varieties in order to meet growing demands for yield and grain quality. Here we developed a mutant wheat population using the moderately salt-tolerant Bangladeshi variety BARI Gom-25, with the primary goal of further increasing salt tolerance.After titrating the optimal ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) concentration, ca 30,000 seeds were treated with 1% EMS, and 1676 lines, all originating from single seeds, survived through the first four generations. Most mutagenized lines showed a similar phenotype to BARI Gom-25, although visual differences such as dwarfing, giant plants, early and late flowering and altered leaf morphology were seen in some lines. By developing an assay for salt tolerance, and by screening the mutagenized population, we identified 70 lines exhibiting increased salt tolerance. The selected lines typically showed a 70% germination rate on filter paper soaked in 200 mM NaCl, compared to 0–30% for BARI Gom-25. From two of the salt-tolerant OlsAro lines (OA42 and OA70), genomic DNA was sequenced to 15x times coverage. A comparative analysis against the BARI Gom-25 genomic sequence identified a total of 683,201 (OA42), and 768,954 (OA70) SNPs distributed throughout the three sub-genomes (A, B and D). The mutation frequency was determined to be approximately one per 20,000 bp. All the 70 selected salt-tolerant lines were tested for root growth in the laboratory, and under saline field conditions in Bangladesh. The results showed that all the lines selected for tolerance showed a better salt tolerance phenotype than both BARI Gom-25 and other local wheat varieties tested.

[学术文献] Characterization of the Q.Ymym region on wheat chromosome 2D associated with wheat yellow mosaic virus resistance 进入全文

WILEY

Yellow mosaic disease, caused by wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV), is one of the most serious diseases of winter wheat in Japan and China. A single major QTL for WYMV resistance in the Japanese wheat variety 'Yumechikara', designated Q.Ymym, has been mapped on a 43.6 cM linkage block between the two markers Xcfd233 and Xgwm349 on chromosome 2D. We were able to obtain two recombinants within the block, which facilitated reducing the size of the linkage block. The pseudomolecule sequence of 'Chinese Spring' (CS) indicated that the original Q.Ymym region of 43.6 cM corresponded to 68.5 Mb and the narrowed Q.Ymym region represents a size of 27.3 Mb. The sequence features of the Q.Ymym region were unique in comparison with CS sequences, which may have led to the low recombination rate within the block. The Q.Ymym haplotype block was detected in other WYMV‐resistant varieties but not in the susceptible varieties used in this study. The unique sequence structure of the Q.Ymym region allowed the development of co‐dominant markers for use in marker‐assisted selection.

[学术文献] Identification of Fusarium graminearum-responsive miRNAs and their targets in wheat by sRNA sequencing and degradome analysis 进入全文

Springer

Fusarium head blight (FHB), a prevalent disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Fusarium graminearum, leads to considerable losses of yield and quality in wheat production. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of plant defense responses. Here, to better understand the F. graminearum-responsive miRNAs, we constructed sRNA libraries for wheat cultivar Sumai 3 challenged with F. graminearum and sterile water, respectively. As a result, a total of 203 known miRNAs from 46 families and 68 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 18 known and six novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between the F. graminearum-infected samples and the controls and thus were considered to be responsive to F. graminearum. The expression patterns of eight miRNAs were further validated by stem-loop qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, target genes were validated by degradome sequencing. Integrative analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and their targets revealed complex miRNA-mediated regulatory networks involved in the response of wheat to F. graminearum infection. Our findings are expected to facilitate a better understanding of the miRNA regulation in wheat-F. graminearum interaction.

[前沿资讯] Coordination of carbon and nitrogen accumulation and translocation of winter wheat plant to improve grain yield and processing quality 进入全文

Nature

本文的目的是研究小麦品种的碳(C)和氮(N)积累特性,以及实现高品质高产的转运特性。2016-2017年和2017-2018年在河南省原阳和许昌种植了24个小麦品种,其中12个品种在谷蛋白D1中含有优质谷Glu-D1 5 + 10,12个品种不含Glu-D1 5 + 10。含Glu-D1 5 + 10品种在籽粒品质性状上具有优势。5 + 10组与no 5 + 10组籽粒蛋白浓度(GPC)差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05)。粮食产量(GY)与内核数量显著相关(KN) (r = 0.778, P < 0.01), 千粒重(TKW) (r = 0.559, P < 0.01),干物质积累在花期后 (r = 0.443, P < 0.05),并阻止水溶性碳水化合物(WSC)积累(r = 0.487, P < 0.05)和易位(r = 0.490, P < 0.05)。GPC、面团稳定时间(DST)和氮农艺效率氮积累有显著相关性(NAA)在成熟阶段(r = 0.524, = 0.404, = 0.418, P < 0.01, < 0.05, < 0.05),分别和氮易位数量(r = 0.512, = 0.471, = 0.405, P < 0.05, < 0.05, < 0.05)。这些结果表明,通过选择优质小麦品种,协调C、N积累和转运,可以实现小麦的优质、高产和高效。优质谷蛋白亚单位基因Glu-D1 5 + 10和WSC可作为优质高产小麦育种和生产的选择指标。

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