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[相关专利] 一种筛选不同穗粒数和单株产量小麦的方法及其使用的试剂盒 进入全文

国家知识产权局

本发明公开了一种筛选不同穗粒数和单株产量小麦的方法及其使用的试剂盒。该方法包括如下步骤:检测待测小麦基于TaSAP2A基因的基因型为基因型I还是基因型II;基因型I的小麦为基于InDel位点的核苷酸为T的小麦;基因型II的小麦为基于所述InDel位点的核苷酸缺失的小麦;InDel位点为小麦基因组中SEQ ID NO:3自5’末端起的第1527位核苷酸;基因型I的小麦的单株产量>基因型II的小麦的单株产量;基因型I的小麦的穗粒数>基因型II的小麦的穗粒数;基因型I的小麦的株高<基因型II的小麦的株高。本发明在小麦分子标记辅助育种过程中具有重要的应用价值。 

[学术文献] An Update of Recent Use of Aegilops Species in Wheat Breeding 进入全文

Frontiers

Aegilops species have significantly contributed to wheat breeding despite the difficulties involved in the handling of wild species, such as crossability and incompatibility. A number of biotic resistance genes have been identified and incorporated into wheat varieties from Aegilops species, and this genus is also contributing toward improvement of complex traits such as yield and abiotic tolerance for drought and heat. The D genome diploid species of Aegilops tauschii has been utilized most often in wheat breeding programs. Other Aegilops species are more difficult to utilize in the breeding because of lower meiotic recombination frequencies; generally they can be utilized only after extensive and time-consuming procedures in the form of translocation/introgression lines. After the emergence of Ug99 stem rust and wheat blast threats, Aegilops species gathered more attention as a form of new resistance sources. This article aims to update recent progress on Aegilops species, as well as to cover new topics around their use in wheat breeding.

[学术文献] An Overexpressed Q Allele Leads to Increased Spike Density and Improved Processing Quality in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 进入全文

G3

Spike density and processing quality are important traits in modern wheat production and are controlled by multiple gene loci. The associated genes have been intensively studied and new discoveries have been constantly reported during the past few decades. However, no gene playing a significant role in the development of these two traits has been identified. In the current study, a common wheat mutant with extremely compact spikes and good processing quality was isolated and characterized. A new allele (Qc1) of the Q gene (an important domestication gene) responsible for the mutant phenotype was cloned, and the molecular mechanism for the mutant phenotype was studied. Results revealed that Qc1 originated from a point mutation that interferes with the miRNA172-directed cleavage of Q transcripts, leading to its overexpression. It also reduces the longitudinal cell size of rachises, resulting in an increased spike density. Furthermore, Qc1 increases the number of vascular bundles, which suggests a higher efficiency in the transportation of assimilates in the spikes of the mutant than that of wild type. This accounts for the improved processing quality. The effects of Qc1 on spike density and wheat processing quality were confirmed by analyzing nine common wheat mutants possessing four different Qc alleles. These results deepen our understanding of the key roles of Q gene, and provide new insights for the potential application of Qc alleles in wheat quality breeding.

[学术文献] Wheat breeding for quality: A historical review 进入全文

WILEY

Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) is a leading cereal contributing to the nourishment of humankind. Since its domestication ca. 12,000 years ago, humans have profoundly influenced its evolution. In the more recent past, breeding via cross‐hybridization and the selection of progeny with superior end‐use quality have moved from solely phenotyping (e.g., bread baking quality), to a more detailed genetic approach of selecting genes, alleles, and whole‐genome structure for desirable traits.The present review provides a brief historical summary of wheat improvement for end-use quality. In the last ~150 years, wheat improvement has benefited from advances in genetics, chemistry and biotechnology. In the past couple decades, rapid advances in DNA and next-generation sequencing technology have promised a revolution in wheat improvement. The various technologies are reviewed here.The “future” of wheat improvement may involve the whole-genome-based analysis, “genomic selection.” However, to date, the plethora of QTL generated over the recent years have largely remained unused. Wheat is vital to the survival of humankind, and new cultivars must be continually developed. These cultivars should have high quality for processing and consumer products. An important means of breeding and selecting for high quality is through rapidly evolving genome-based technologies.

[前沿资讯] Domestication-driven changes in plant traits associated with changes in the assembly of the rhizosphere microbiota in tetraploid wheat 进入全文

Nature

尽管植物在驯化过程中经历了巨大的形态和生理变化,但它们对微生物群落的影响却少有研究。在这里,我们对39份四倍体小麦Triticum turgidum的根际细菌和真菌群落以及N循环微生物行会的丰度进行了分析,这些菌株从野生亚种到半矮秆优良品种的4个驯化类群。根据小麦驯化类群,我们确定了几种微生物系统类型,它们的相对丰度存在显著差异,驯化对真菌的影响更大。与野生二聚体相比,在驯化条件下,属于梭菌纲的潜在植物病原菌的相对丰度降低,而属于专性植物共生体的格洛梅氏菌的相对丰度则相反。与原始驯化小麦品种相比,优良小麦品种中硝化细菌和丛枝菌根真菌的减少表明,绿色革命减少了植物和根际微生物之间的耦合,这些微生物对植物养分的有效性具有潜在的重要意义。植株直径和细根率与微生物类群的关联度最高,突出了它们在驯化过程中形成根际微生物群落的假定作用。除驯化外,各驯化组间的细菌和真菌群落组成也存在显著差异。尤其是蛇床子科和根瘤菌的相对丰度与寄主的加入密切相关,遗传力估计分别为27%和25%,这表明通过祖先植物根际有益微生物组合的导入,可能存在遗传改良的空间。

[相关专利] 一个与小麦产量相关的SNP位点及其应用 进入全文

国家知识产权局

本发明公开了一个与小麦产量相关的SNP位点及其应用。本发明公开的SNP位点为小麦基因组上位于3A染色体上的第549903090位的SNP位点C549903090G,即序列表中序列3自5’端起第415位核苷酸;所述C549903090G位点为C/G多态。本发明又基于该SNP位点开发了CAPS分子标记,并提供了一种鉴定待测小麦产量相关性状的方法。本发明通过大量小麦材料进行实验验证发现:基因型为GG的待测小麦品种的产量和/或千粒重和/或穗粒数和/或小穗粒数和/或小穗数显著高于基因型为CC的待测小麦品种的产量和/或千粒重和/或穗粒数和/或小穗粒数和/或小穗数。本发明对小麦分子标记辅助育种具有重要意义。 

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