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[前沿资讯] Indian state turns to drones to modernise agriculture 进入全文

AgroNews

In order to increase agricultural production with the help of precision farming technologies, the Indian state of Maharashtra turns to drones. The Maharashtra state government has been looking to work together with drone companies. A workshop was held in November 2018, where the process of drone mapping was studied for irrigation and agricultural use. Drone mapping to improve irrigation systems, with farmers suffering from drought, drone mapping can be used to improve irrigation systems and agricultural yields. Predict crop yield, The high-resolution multi-spectral images from drones, coupled with artificial intelligence and machine-learning, help to gain insight into plant health, soil conditions and can help to predict crop yield. Remote sensing data, The data collected by drones is combined with satellite-based remote sensing data. Soil-based sensor data can provide actionable insights to take timely action to prevent losses from crop disease, optimise irrigation and reduce the impact of climate change and unpredictable seasonal variations. 

[前沿资讯] Pre-crop values from satellite images to support diversification of agriculture 进入全文

AgroNews

Pre-crop values for a high number of previous and following crop combinations originating from farmers' fields are, for the first time, available to support diversification of currently monotonous crop sequencing patterns in agriculture. The groundbreaking method utilizing satellite images was developed by Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) in collaboration with Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI). Luke has developed together with FGI a dynamic method to derive Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values to estimate pre-crop values on a field parcel scale from open Copernicus Sentinel-2 data. "The method is based on estimation of NDVI-gap, which was originally developed for Luke's Land Use Optimization -tool available for each Finnish farmer on EconomyDoctor-portal", says Research Professor Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio. Pre-crop value is a measure that indicates the benefits of a previous crop for a subsequent crop in crop sequencing. Thereby, understanding on pre-crop values facilitates diversification of crop production. This again is a core measure for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems.

[前沿资讯] Where will flooded fields best replenish groundwater? 进入全文

Stanford's School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences

Overpumping in California’s Central Valley has depleted groundwater storage capacity and caused the land to sink. A new model based on remote sensing data could help zero in on where water managers can replenish aquifers by flooding fields. In California, the amount of water exiting aquifers under the state's most productive farming region far surpasses the amount of water trickling back in. That rampant overdraft has caused land across much of the region to sink like a squeezed out sponge, permanently depleting groundwater storage capacity and damaging infrastructure. New research from Stanford University suggests a way to map precisely where and how to use groundwater recharge to refill the aquifers and stop the sinking. 

[前沿资讯] How much nature is lost due to higher yields? 进入全文

Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ

The exploitation of farmland is being intensified with a focus to raising yields. The degree to which yields actually increase as a result and the extent of the simultaneous loss of biological diversity have to date been under-researched factors. An international team of scientists led by the UFZ has now evaluated data from worldwide research in which both yield and biodiversity were examined before and after intensification measures. The findings of this meta-analysis have now been published in the journal Global Change Biology.  Around 80 percent of land area in Europe is used for settlement, agriculture and forestry. In order to increase yields even further than current levels, exploitation is being intensified. Areas are being consolidated in order to cultivate them more efficiently using larger machines. Pesticides and fertilisers are increasingly being used and a larger number of animals being kept on grazing land. "Such measures increase yield but, overall, they also have negative impacts on biodiversity," says UFZ biologist Dr. Michael Beckmann. "This is because even agricultural areas offer fauna and flora a valuable habitat - which is something that is frequently not sufficiently taken into consideration." In addition, previous studies have mostly examined the effects of intensified land use only from one perspective: either with regard to the increase in yield or the loss of biodiversity. "We unfortunately still know far too little about the relationship between the two and what price nature ultimately has to pay for increases in yield," says Beckmann. In the recent study, the team of scientists aimed to address this knowledge gap.

[学术文献] Detecting vegetation stress as a soil contamination proxy: a review of optical proximal and remote sensing techniques 进入全文

International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology

Soil contamination is a worldwide crisis, which diminishes food and agricultural production. Alterations in the soil environment due to soil contamination cause biophysical and biochemical changes in vegetation. Due to dynamic nature of these changes, early monitoring can permit for preventive interferences before intense and sometimes inevitable vegetation and soil problems occur. As plants are rooted in soil substrate, vegetation changes can be used as bio-indicators of soil conditions. Traditionally, vegetation changes have been usually determined by visual analysis or detected after major destructive sampling during the growth period. As the characteristics of vegetation influence its spectral properties, effective remote and non-contact detection methods offer an alternative and near real-time way for detecting plant changes, even prior to visual symptoms and negative effects appearance. The aim of the current study is to review the potential of optical proximal and remote sensing techniques at different platforms for indirect assessment of plant–soil interactions via monitoring vegetation anomalies related to soil contamination. It is strongly felt that this rapidly progressing technological direction will permit extending the use of the techniques to geology, soil science and precision agriculture and an overall broad range of applications.

[学术文献] 中国农产品贸易 40 年回顾与展望 进入全文

农业展望

改革开放40年来,中国农产品对外贸易取得了令人瞩目的成就。通过回顾中国农产品贸易的发展历程,分析农产品贸易规模、产品结构和市场结构等变化趋势及动因,对农产品贸易发展前景提出展望。未来国际贸易保护主义抬头,贸易环境更趋复杂;传统优势农产品竞争力减弱,进口将持续增长;市场进一步开放,多元化趋势将愈加明显。 

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