[前沿资讯] Bill Gates donates $15 million to campaign pushing GMOs on small farmers around the world 进入全文
The Gates Foundation is funding a campaign to “end world hunger” by promoting GMO technology. The organization has hired 400 “science ambassadors” to influence agricultural policy in 35 countries. In the last four years, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has donated a total of $15 million to two global campaigns aimed at “ending world hunger” by expanding the use of GMO technology. The first, called the “Alliance for Science,” was created in 2014 with the intention of “depolarizing” the GMO debate. The second, called “Ceres2030,” was created in 2018 to help the United Nations achieve its goal of “zero hunger by 2030.”Both campaigns are headquartered at Cornell University. The Alliance for Science has received $12 million from the Gates Foundation so far, while Ceres2030 was founded with a $3 million grant last October. The funds for the Alliance for Science will be used “to ensure broad access to agricultural innovation, especially among small farmers in developing nations,” says a Cornell University press release.
Carpita and Maureen McCann have developed and refined methods for efficiently converting cellulosic biomass into fuels. Their findings could be used with gene-editing technology to make fuel from biomass sorghum, seen here, or other bio feedstock plants. Increasing production of second-generation biofuels—those made from non-food biomass such as switchgrass, biomass sorghum, and corn stover—would lessen our reliance on burning fossil fuels, which contributes to climate change. Several barriers have prevented the efficient conversion of that biomass. Lignin, a complex compound in cell walls, blocks access to plant carbohydrates that could be cleaved into sugars and then fermented into biofuels. The compounds that hold plant cells together, as well as their tightly packed cell clusters, also block access to sugars for fermentation into fuels. Now, a team led by Purdue University has built on success in removing the lignin barrier to solve other cellular obstacles. Their findings, reported in the journals Plant Biotechnology Journal and Biotechnology for Biofuels, offer opportunities to significantly increase renewable biofuel production from crop waste products and biofeedstocks that could be grown on marginal lands.
[学术文献] Agricultural biomass/waste as adsorbents for toxic metal decontamination of aqueous solutions 进入全文
Journal of Molecular Liquids
Toxic metals can be present in the environment, causing negative effects on the ecosystem and human health. Although several technologies have been used for decontamination purposes, biosorption is an environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternative to remove toxic metals from wastewater. Agricultural biomasses are a class of biosorbents that offer several advantages, including their low cost, availability in nature, simplicity to be obtained and used as adsorbents. This review article is focused on the use of agricultural biomass materials for the removal of toxic metal(oid)s from contaminated aqueous matrices. In addition, raw and modified forms of these biosorbents are considered as precursors for the preparation of other adsorbents like biochar. Following agricultural biomasses are discussed: i) watermelon, ii) potato, iii) cucumber, iv) peanut, v) almond, vi) walnut and hazelnut, vii) pistachio, and viii) tea waste-based biosorbents. The adsorption potential of the biomasses is exhibited under the optimum experimental conditions, and their characterization and possibility to reuse is also considered. Moreover, isotherm and equilibrium parameters of the metal(oid) adsorption by the biomasses are discussed. Specifically, thermodynamic studies are described in order to better understand the nature of the biosorption process between contaminant and biomass. All these considerations reflect the high potential of agricultural wastebased adsorbents for toxic metal(oid)s removal related to wastewater treatment technologies.