目前俄罗斯有两种国家级科技奖, 即国家科技奖( 包括青年学者国家科技奖) 和政府科技奖。国家科技奖是科技领域最高、最具权威的科技奖, 政府科技奖次之 。国家科技奖侧重科学性, 政府奖更侧重实用性。
[行业报告] Impacts of agricultural policies on productivity and sustainability performance in agriculture: A literature review 进入全文
This report reviews the evidence base on how agricultural policies impact environmental sustainability and productivity of the agriculture sector, including the potentially contradictory signals policies may send. It considers impacts for specific policy types, classified according to the OECD’s Producer Support Estimate (PSE) classification for agricultural support. At the farm level, key pathways for environmental impacts identified in the literature are firstly incentivising a change in agricultural production at the intensive margin, extensive margin or entry-exit margin, and secondly the dynamic impacts of land use choice. Beyond this, policies can also affect agriculture’s environmental performance by stimulating (or stifling) the provision of environmental services. Environmental impacts from agricultural policy depend on several factors. Individual responses to economic incentives created by agricultural policies vary, producing variations in environmental impacts. Variation also occurs due to location-specific physical factors, including landscape characteristics, as well as the cumulative effects of decisions across actors and across time. Finally, impacts may differ across scales.
Most of the presidential candidates, including President Donald Trump, support using taxpayer funds to provide direct subsidies to farmers through price support, federal crop insurance, and other farm income safety-net programs. While President Trump has proposed cutting crop insurance subsidies in his annual budgets, he has provided unprecedented levels of ad hoc assistance—as much as $28 billion—to compensate farm owners for losses they might have incurred because of the administration’s trade war with China. Most Democratic candidates would target government farm income safety-net and conservation program outlays more toward small and middle-sized farms and away from large farms. All the Democratic Party candidates considered in this report embrace the broad tenets of the Green New Deal and would support policies to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate climate change, including public investments in agricultural research programs. President Trump ostensibly opposes all climate change initiatives that could possibly affect job growth in the US.