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[学术文献] 俄罗斯的科技奖励制度 进入全文

中国知网

目前俄罗斯有两种国家级科技奖, 即国家科技奖( 包括青年学者国家科技奖) 和政府科技奖。国家科技奖是科技领域最高、最具权威的科技奖, 政府科技奖次之 。国家科技奖侧重科学性, 政府奖更侧重实用性。

[行业报告] Impacts of agricultural policies on productivity and sustainability performance in agriculture: A literature review 进入全文

OECD

This report reviews the evidence base on how agricultural policies impact environmental sustainability and productivity of the agriculture sector, including the potentially contradictory signals policies may send. It considers impacts for specific policy types, classified according to the OECD’s Producer Support Estimate (PSE) classification for agricultural support. At the farm level, key pathways for environmental impacts identified in the literature are firstly incentivising a change in agricultural production at the intensive margin, extensive margin or entry-exit margin, and secondly the dynamic impacts of land use choice. Beyond this, policies can also affect agriculture’s environmental performance by stimulating (or stifling) the provision of environmental services. Environmental impacts from agricultural policy depend on several factors. Individual responses to economic incentives created by agricultural policies vary, producing variations in environmental impacts. Variation also occurs due to location-specific physical factors, including landscape characteristics, as well as the cumulative effects of decisions across actors and across time. Finally, impacts may differ across scales.

[行业报告] The Future of US Agricultural and Rural Development Policy 进入全文

AEI

Most of the presidential candidates, including President Donald Trump, support using taxpayer funds to provide direct subsidies to farmers through price support, federal crop insurance, and other farm income safety-net programs. While President Trump has proposed cutting crop insurance subsidies in his annual budgets, he has provided unprecedented levels of ad hoc assistance—as much as $28 billion—to compensate farm owners for losses they might have incurred because of the administration’s trade war with China. Most Democratic candidates would target government farm income safety-net and conservation program outlays more toward small and middle-sized farms and away from large farms. All the Democratic Party candidates considered in this report embrace the broad tenets of the Green New Deal and would support policies to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate climate change, including public investments in agricultural research programs. President Trump ostensibly opposes all climate change initiatives that could possibly affect job growth in the US.

[学术文献] 深化科技体制改革背景下科研人员激励政策体系研究 进入全文

中国知网

在我国深化科技体制改革的背景下,科研人员激励政策改革加速。通过大量政策文本的收集与分析,梳理了此轮科研人员激励政策的要点。从激励意义、激励周期、影响范围、改革难度、突破性五方面进行了政策作用分析,基于知识员工激励理论构建了我国科研人员激励政策体系。并提出具体优化建议。 

[学术文献] 优化经费管理体制机制激发科技创新活力_以中央级公益性科研单位为例 进入全文

中国知网

"发展是第一要务,人才是第一资源,创新是第一动力",这是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的重要论断。要实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦必须依靠科学技术,必须实现科技梦。目前,我国已是世界第二大研发投入国,但科技产出效率不高,特别是基础科研水平不强。剖析制约科研产出的因素,其中科研经费管理体制机制是阻碍科研人员潜心科研的重要方面。文章从财政经费基本支出投入与经费管理两方面分析了科研经费管理现状,指出当前财政基本支出投入不足的投入体制分散科研人员精力;科研项目预算"两张皮"、激励支出力度不够强、资金划转限制不合理等机制问题。提出加大基本支出支持力度、让科研人员专注科研、激发活力;探索科研项目纳入政府购买公共服务目录、减少科研过程干扰、尽快落实养老保险制度、为科研单位松绑;以及进一步完善科研经费管理制度等具体建议

[学术文献] 农业科研机构体制机制改革若干问题分析 进入全文

中国知网

文章以中国热带农业科学院为例,分析了其在推动农业科研机构体制机制改革的具体工作中所面临的问题,并针对问题提出建议,如农业科研机构科技创新资源布局优化问题建议通过内设机构设置调整、科技创新平台清理、内部管理方式改革来解决;激励机制改革难点则要通过解决改革目标与措施衔接问题、发展目标与团队目标错位问题等来攻克;而在改革方式选择问题上,指出农业科研机构个体内部适合自上而下方式,系统整体适合自上而下与自下而上相结合的方式等,以期对同类单位的体制机制改革有所借鉴。

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