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[学术文献] 国际私人农业研发投入变化与比较 进入全文

中国知网

发达国家私人部门在农业研发中扮演着重要角色。近年来,国际私人农业研发投入和研究领域的变化,对中国等发展中国家私人农业研发的发展具有指导作用。本文通过对发达国家和发展中国家私人农业研发的差异比较,结合中国私人农业研发现状,从农业科研体制改革、法律制度建设和宏观管理3个方面提出了促进中国私人部门农业研发的政策建议。

[学术文献] US agricultural exports and labor market adjustments 进入全文

Agricultural Economics

This study empirically investigates the impact of US agricultural exports on farm and nonfarm employment and tests how individuals adjust to agricultural export shocks. Based on the data from 1991 to 2017 and a Bartik‐style instrument that exploits cross‐regional variation in agricultural export exposure stemming from initial differences in agricultural specialization and temporal variation in predicted US exports from exogenous tariff reductions, we find that a 1% increase in agricultural exports increases farm employment by 0.302% and has no statistically significant impact on nonfarm employment. The individual‐level analysis shows that, in response to positive agricultural export demand shocks, natives with a college degree are more likely to become self‐employed and start farm activities and while non‐natives without a college degree are more likely to become hired farmworkers. A back‐of‐the‐envelope calculation based on the estimates of agricultural trade elasticities of employment shows that on balance, job gains due to US agricultural exports are slightly larger than job loss due to agricultural imports, resulting in a net gain of around 0.24 million farm jobs over 1991–2017.

[政策法规] White Paper on Artificial Intelligence: a European approach to excellence and trust 进入全文

欧盟

2020年2月19日,欧盟委员会发布了人工智能白皮书《走向卓越与信任的欧洲道路》,旨在打造以人为本的可信赖和安全的人工智能,确保欧洲成为数字化转型的全球领导者。报告主要分为六大部分,首先概述了人工智能技术,进而阐述了需要利用工业和专业优势,抓住下一波数据浪潮机遇。其次重点围绕“卓越生态系统”与“信任生态系统”两方面展开,着重建构了可信赖与安全的人工智能监管框架。最后,还发布了《关于人工智能、物联网和机器人对安全和责任的影响的报告》和《欧洲数字战略》两份附件。本文着重介绍“卓越生态系统”与“信任生态系统”以及欧盟未来可信赖与安全的人工智能监管路径。鉴于人工智能的飞速发展,欧洲可以将技术、产业优势和基于基本价值观的监管框架相结合,打造一整套人工智能生态系统,从而为欧洲社会和经济带来技术福祉。其中关键在于,人工智能必须以欧洲价值观和包括人类尊严、隐私保护等在内的基本权利为基础。

[学术文献] 农业科技创新与现代农业发展探讨 进入全文

中国知网

现代农业持续稳定发展的根本出路在于科技创新。本文阐述了农业科技创新的涵义与重要性,分析了农业科技创新的主要障碍因素,并提出了推进农业科技创新的途径,以期为推进现代农业发展提供参考。 

[行业报告] Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2019 进入全文

OECD

This annual report monitors and evaluates agricultural policies spanning all 6 continents, including the 36 OECD countries, the 5 non-OECD EU Member States, and 12 emerging economies. It is a unique source of up-to date estimates of support to agriculture using a comprehensive system of measuring and classifying support to agriculture – the Producer and Consumer Support Estimates (PSEs and CSEs), the General Services Support Estimate (GSSE) and related indicators – which provide insight into the increasingly complex nature of agricultural policy and serve as a basis for OECD’s agricultural policy monitoring and evaluation. Comprehensive country chapters and the Statistical Annex containing detailed background tables with indicators of agricultural support are available in electronic form at the publication website.

[学术文献] 日本京都大学科研支援体制建设研究 进入全文

中国知网

在很多情况下,困扰科研人员的并不是科研活动本身,而是周边杂务和一些行政性事务,这是很多国家的科研人员都面临的问题。对此,日本不少高校设立专门的学术研究支援室,聘请具有丰富的科研经验或行政经历的专家学者担任专职学术研究支援员。其中,京都大学实施常规支援与随机支援"双轨并行"的支援体制,在经费申请、项目管理、论文发表、成果公开、人际网络建设等方面为科研人员提供系统、专业、具体、细致的支援,以利科研人员能潜心于专业研究,提高科研效率,促进创新。

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