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[学术文献] Effect of chemical composition, granule structure and crystalline form of pigmented rice starches on their functional characteristics 进入全文

Food Chemistry

The present research was carried out to analyze the effect of chemical composition, granule morphology and crystalline structure of pigmented rice starches on their functional characteristics. The starches of these rice cultivars were observed to possess novel characteristic as compared to hybrids or non-pigmented cultivars in terms of physicochemical, pasting and thermal characteristics. The diameter of the analyzed starch particles depicted a considerable range varying from 5.139 mu m to 8.453 mu m as their median particle size visualized at x50. The color values of the analyzed starch samples indicated a high degree of whiteness and purity. The compact nature of starch granules in Kaw quder and Kaw kareed rice cultivars accounted for their higher transition temperatures as compared to other cultivars. Crystalline pattern by X-Ray diffractometer showed an A-type pattern for analyzing starches. The starch granules showed the irregular polyhedral morphology with spherical granules having a polyhedral angular shaped morphology packed tightly with a relatively smooth surface.

[学术文献] Compound-specific δ~(13)C and δ~(15)N analyses of fatty acids and amino acids for discrimination of organic, pesticide-free, and conventional rice (Oryza sativa L.) 进入全文

Food Chemistry

Herein, we improve the procedure for organic rice authentication using compound-specific delta C-13 and delta N-15 analyses of fatty acids and amino acids, addressing the increasing demand for accurate methods to confirm organic authenticity. Organic rice (OR) and pesticide-free rice (PFR) featured higher values of delta N-15(bulk) than conventional rice (CR), whereas the corresponding differences between OR and PFR were insignificant. Additionally, OR, PFR, and CR could be discriminated based on some delta C-13(amino-acid) and delta N-15(amino-acid) values. delta C-13(bulk) was correlated with most delta C-13(fatty-acid) (r >= 0.596) values, and delta N-15(bulk) was strongly correlated with most delta N-15(amino-acid) (r >= 0.834) values. The first component in the orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis model allowed for a clear separation between OR and PFR, and good predictability (Q(2)Y = 0.506). Thus, the present study improves the reliability of organic authentication when bulk stable isotope ratio analysis alone is insufficient for the accurate discrimination of OR, PFR, and CR.

[前沿资讯] 共青城市:一季晚粳稻亩产超千公斤 创江西一季中稻单产新高 进入全文

人民网

11月9日上午,在共青城市苏家垱乡浆潭联圩一分场千亩示范田内,经国家一季晚粳测产测效专家组现场考察和实割测产,示范田内千亩一季晚粳平均亩产达到1022.2千克,创江西省一季中稻单产新高。当日上午10时,随着收割机的响声,经国现场收割、称重和除水,一季晚粳嘉丰优2号水稻亩产超过千公斤,创江西省一季中稻单产新高。测产报告显示,2019年11月9日,国家重点研发计划“江西双季稻区绿色规模化丰产增效技术集成与示范”项目组织专家对九江市粮油站承担的“环鄱阳湖区双季稻绿色规模化丰产增效技术集成与示范”课题实施任务进行了现场测产验收,专家组听取了实施情况汇报,并对共青城市苏家挡乡浆潭联圩一分场示范区进行了现场考察和实割测产,表示该示范区种植的品种为嘉丰优2号,采用宽窄移裁、节氨增效、后期保根、病虫害统防统治及综合防控、肥料精准施用等技术。示范区1000亩连片,群体长势均衡,田间无明显病虫害,青秆黄热,落色好。随机选取三块田,进行现场机收实割测产,去除杂质和空秕粒,计算杂质率,用PM-8188型谷物水份测量仪测定稻谷含水量后,折算为14.5%的标准含水量,计算出稻谷实际亩产,第一块实割面积698.3㎡,鲜谷1234.7kg,杂质1%,含水量25.8%,折标准稻谷亩产1014.0kg;第二块实割面积847.5㎡,鲜谷1565.3kg,杂质1.5%,含水量26.8%,折标准稻谷亩产1055.5kg;第三块实割面积719.8㎡,鲜谷1257.5kg,杂质1%,含水量26.1%,折标准稻谷亩产997.1kg,示范区三块田平均亩产1022.2kg。据悉,共青城市优质稻苏家垱乡示范基地,位于苏家垱乡浆潭联圩一分场,紧靠圩堤,地处昌九大道中点,交通便利。2017年,共青城市在全省率先启动万亩以上单退圩堤除险加固工程,该项目是共青城市首个PPP项目,总投资2.1亿元,对16.2公里的浆潭联圩进行了加固,新建了16.2公里联圩沥青道路,修建了5座排涝站,改建了2座提灌站,保护耕地面积2.6万亩,大大提升了圩内稻田的排涝抗旱能力。2019年,联圩一分场示范种植首届全国优质稻金奖品种—嘉丰优2号,种植面积1050亩,其中直播720亩、移栽330亩。受今年持续高温干旱影响,江西省大部水稻受灾成灾,造成水稻减产。为保稳定、稳收成,共青城市委市政府高度重视农业生产工作,在九江市农业农村局的指导下,市农业农村水利局及苏家垱乡人民政府积极作为,投入人员200人次,设备120台次,资金34.8万元,进行抽水、调水,修缮水渠,确保水源通畅,全面保障稻田的水源供应,为今年基地的高产丰收奠定了良好的基础。同时,江西省农技推广总站高度支持九江水稻示范基地生产,2019年安排专项经费3万元,用于基地生产资料、劳务费等经费。基地采用选用良种、配方施肥、稻草还田、绿色防控等优质高产高效生产技术。市、县农业部门高度重视基地生产指导工作,多次下到基地对水稻全生育期进行技术指导,确保基地生产稳定。

[前沿资讯] 广东首块海水稻田亩产突破900斤 进入全文

新浪网

12月2日,广东省江门台山海宴南丰村750亩由盐碱地垦造出来的稻田迎来晚造水稻收割的高潮。“亩产突破900斤,口感也不错!”在南丰村海水稻育种基地内,广东海洋大学教授陈日胜品尝了新收割的海水稻米饭后,难掩兴奋。南丰村是广东省首块在盐碱地上完成垦造水田项目并种植海水稻的村。当地政府通过打造农业产业园,吸引了陈日胜海水稻种植团队在此建立海水稻育种基地。沿海滩涂地区由于海水渗透导致盐分过高,不能像平原地区一样大规模种植粮食作物,被视为“农业荒漠”。“这一地块长期荒芜,长了一些杂草,成了周边村民的牧牛地,有些地方甚至成了垃圾填埋场,由于无法耕种,逐渐成了丢荒地。”台山市自然资源局副局长梁志娇说起垦造水田之前的场景,仍然记忆犹新。“该项目于2018年初开始实施,年底顺利完工。2019年引入陈日胜教授团队试种海水稻,效果立竿见影。”海宴镇党委书记李智勇说。陈日胜介绍,与一般的水稻相比,海水稻的稻秆较高,有的高度可达到2米,稻田里非常适合养殖鱼蟹,实现立体式生态改良,有效控制病虫草害,增加土壤肥力,保护生物多样性。通过种植海水稻,中和分解盐碱含量,可以起到土壤改良的效果。南丰村种植海水稻的成功,为利用滩涂盐碱地破解广东补充耕地瓶颈作出了尝试。资料显示,中国有约2亿亩盐碱地,分布在北方的盐碱地和东南沿海滩涂,很少有植被覆盖,如果都能垦造成水田,种上海水稻,不仅可以解决粮食问题,更可以有效增加补充耕地指标,缓解用地压力。“在浙江、福建、广东、广西、海南五省就有5000多万亩盐碱地,仅广东的沿海滩涂盐碱地就有将近300万亩,我们在南丰村培育出来的海水稻种子,都适合在这些盐碱地生长。”陈日胜表示,他有信心在南丰村打造一个广东省最大的海水稻现代农业产业园,并把种子推广到各地。

[前沿资讯] 南京土壤所在稻田生物固氮研究中取得进展 进入全文

中国科学院

生物固氮是稻田区别于旱地的本质特征,也是稻田生产力维持的关键。中国科学院南京土壤研究所谢祖彬团队经过多年研究,创建了稻田生物固氮的田间原位直接定量技术;揭示了稻田生物固氮主要发生在0-5cm,尤其是0-1cm土壤表层;首次阐明了光合固氮和异养固氮对稻田生物固氮的贡献。提出了铝氧化物抑制念珠藻生长是固氮量减少的关键因素;发现生物固氮的氮主要由K型微生物亚硝化螺菌参与氨氧化过程;提出了施钼可大幅度提高稻田生物固氮量,并利用15N同位素探针技术证实非异形蓝细菌(non-heterocystous)细鞘丝藻属(leptolyngbya)和微鞘藻属(Microcoleus)是钼增加稻田生物固氮的主要贡献者;揭示了杂交水稻提高稻田生物固氮的机理。相关研究结果在Soil Biology Biochemistry(2篇)、Biology and Fertility of Soils(1篇)、Science of Total Environment(1篇)和pedosphere(1篇)等期刊上发表。

[学术文献] Impact of cross-breeding of low phytic acid rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutants with commercial cultivars on the phytic acid contents 进入全文

European food research and technology =: Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung. A

Phytic acid (PA) is considered as antinutrient in food and feed. Several low phytic acid (lpa) rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutants have been generated through induced mutation. Lpa mutant lines often exhibit inferior agronomic performance, and cross-breeding is applied to minimize these effects. The impact of such crossing steps on the PA contents in the resulting progenies is unknown. Therefore, three lpa rice mutants differing in mutation type were crossed with commercial rice cultivars, and PA contents in the progenies were determined for various generations grown at different locations. The PA contents of the lpa progenies were differently expressed for the investigated mutation-types and were dependent on environment and/or PA contents of the crossing parents. Nevertheless, for all three mutants, the homozygous lpa progenies always displayed significantly lower PA contents than the original wild-types subjected to the mutation. This demonstrated that cross-breeding of lpa rice mutants with commercial cultivars does not compromise the intended PA reduction and is a useful tool to obtain mutants stably expressing the intended lpa trait.

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