Olfactory response of four aphidophagous insects to aphid- and caterpillar-induced plant volatiles
- Arthropod-Plant Interactions 期刊
- Plants damaged by herbivores emit blends of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. Most work has focussed on systems involving one plant, one herbivore and one natural enemy, though, in nature, plants support multiple herbivores and multiple natural enemies of these herbivores. Our study aimed to understand how different aphid natural enemies respond to aphid-induced VOCs, and whether attraction of the natural enemies that responded to aphid-induced VOCs was altered by simultaneous damage by a chewing herbivore. We used a model system based on Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae), Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) did not show preferences for any plant odour, while Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) responded to undamaged plants over air but not to aphid-damaged plants over undamaged plants. Therefore, no further tests were carried out with these two species. Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) preferred aphid-damaged plants, but not caterpillar-damaged plants, over undamaged plants, and preferred plants damaged by both herbivores over both undamaged plants and aphid-damaged plants. When tested for responses against undamaged plants, Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) preferred aphid-damaged plants but not plants damaged by caterpillars. Plants damaged by both herbivores attracted more parasitoids than undamaged plants, but not more than aphid-damaged plants. Thus, multiply damaged plants were equally attractive to A. colemani and more attractive to C. externa than aphid-damaged plants, while C. cubana and C. sanguinea did not respond to aphid-induced VOCs, highlighting how different natural enemies can have different responses to herbivore-damaged plants.