Fusion of Spectroscopy and Cobalt Electrochemistry Data for Estimating Phosphate Concentration in Hydroponic Solution
- Phosphate is a key element affecting plant growth. Therefore, the accurate determination of phosphate concentration in hydroponic nutrient solutions is essential for providing a balanced set of nutrients to plants within a suitable range. This study aimed to develop a data fusion approach for determining phosphate concentrations in a paprika nutrient solution. As a conventional multivariate analysis approach using spectral data, partial least squares regression (PLSR) and principal components regression (PCR) models were developed using 56 samples for calibration and 24 samples for evaluation. The R2 values of estimation models using PCR and PLSR ranged from 0.44 to 0.64. Furthermore, an estimation model using raw electromotive force (EMF) data from cobalt electrodes gave R2 values of 0.58-0.71. To improve the model performance, a data fusion method was developed to estimate phosphate concentration using near infrared (NIR) spectral and cobalt electrochemical data. Raw EMF data from cobalt electrodes and principle component values from the spectral data were combined. Results of calibration and evaluation tests using an artificial neural network estimation model showed that R2 = 0.90 and 0.89 and root mean square error (RMSE) = 96.70 and 119.50 mg/L, respectively. These values are sufficiently high for application to measuring phosphate concentration in hydroponic solutions.