Two tonoplast proton pumps function in Arabidopsis embryo development
- New Phytologist期刊
- In both plants and animals, multiple cellular processes must be orchestrated to ensure proper organogenesis. The cell division patterns control the shape of growing organs, yet how they are precisely determined and coordinated is poorly understood. In plants, the distribution of the phytohormone auxin is tightly linked to organogenesis, including lateral root (LR) development. Nevertheless, how auxin regulates cell division pattern during lateral root development remains elusive. Here, we report that auxin activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling via transmembrane kinases (TMKs) to control cell division pattern during lateral root development. Both TMK1/4 and MKK4/5-MPK3/6 pathways are required to properly orient cell divisions, which ultimately determine lateral root development in response to auxin. We show that TMKs directly and specifically interact with and phosphorylate MKK4/5, which is required for auxin to activate MKK4/5-MPK3/6 signaling. Our data suggest that TMK-mediated noncanonical auxin signaling is required to regulate cell division pattern and connect auxin signaling to MAPK signaling, which are both essential for plant development.