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Metropolitan Governance in Brazil : Inputs for an Agenda and Strategy
英文名称:
作者:
World Bank Group
工作单位:
类型:
世界银行报告
来源地址:
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/22052
关键词:
URBAN TRANSPORT SANITATION CAPITALS FINANCE INFRASTRUCTURE EMPLOYMENT AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY METRO RAIL AUTOMOBILE GASOLINE TAX URBANIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TRANSPORTATION SUBSIDIES URBAN GROWTH AIRPORT BUS SYSTEM METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION SUBWAY PRINCIPAL INTEREST LAND USE POLICIES LAWS RAPID TRANSIT INDUSTRY LOCAL GOVERNMENTS STRATEGIES FARES SERVICES TREND TAX COLLECTION EMISSIONS ELASTICITY SEWAGE PUBLIC SERVICES HOUSING GASOLINE PRIVATE TRANSPORT TOLL PROJECTS SUBSIDY NEIGHBORHOODS TRAFFIC TAX INCOME TAX FISCAL FEDERALISM WEALTH AIR GREENHOUSE GAS INFLATION TRANSPORT SERVICES TRANSPORT INVESTMENT TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MUNICIPALITIES LOCAL TRANSPORTATION ROAD SYSTEM MASS RAPID TRANSIT PUBLIC HOUSING ROAD COSTS REGIONAL TRANSIT AIR POLLUTION TRAINING TRANSPORT POPULATION GROWTH TRANSIT SERVICE PORT AUTHORITY RESOURCE MOBILIZATION METROPOLITAN AREAS MOBILITY EXTERNALITIES TRIPS CRITERIA MARKETS DRAINAGE FLOOR AREA DEFICITS LEGISLATION TRUE POLLUTION LABOR SUBURBS CAPITAL INVESTMENTS ROUTE DEMAND FOR TRANSIT SUBSIDIES FINANCE GRANTS INFRASTRUCTURE TAXES LAND USE BUSES BUS EQUITY INITIATIVES CONGESTION TRAVEL TRANSPORTATION TRANSIT WAGES CLIMATE CHANGE POLICIES TRANSPARENCY SOCIAL SERVICES INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCING VALUE BANK HOUSING DEVELOPMENT TRAINS ACCESSIBILITY FLOOR AREA RATIO INCOME DISTRIBUTION PUBLIC TRANSPORT PROPERTY TOLL ROADS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS RAILWAY HIGHWAYS URBAN DEVELOPMENT STREETS BRIDGE AFFORDABLE HOUSING SUBSIDIARY TAX REVENUE ROADS GOVERNANCE CAR LAND ECONOMIES OF SCALE RISK REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES PUBLIC PARTICIPATION RAIL TRANSIT AUTHORITY DECENTRALIZATION INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORT SYSTEM INVESTMENTS RISK MANAGEMENT LIGHT RAIL AFFORDABLE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT LABOR MARKETS GOVERNMENTS SAFETY PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORT POLICIES SUBURBAN RAIL URBAN TRANSPORTATION LAND SUPPLY Report Rapport Informe
年份:
2015
发布时间:
学科分类:
出版地:
Washington,USA
总页数:
语种:
English
信息来源:
摘要:
In less than fifty years, Brazil evolved from a predominantly rural society and economy to a highly urbanized country in which 85 percent of its people now live in urban areas and more than 90 percent of the country's GDP is generated in the cities. This rapid urbanization process was characterized by a lack of planning and an enduring framework of inequality, resulting in high degrees of concentrated poverty in the urban areas. Much of this urbanization has taken place in metropolitan regions (MRs). MRs have grown more rapidly than the rest of the country, both in population and in GDP terms. In 2010, per capita GDP was higher in MRs than in the rest of the country and metropolitan economies accounted for 70 percent of GDP. At the same time, half of the Brazilian poor and 90 percent of the people living in subnormal conditions were found in metropolitan regions. The recent approval of a new framework for metropolitan governance inBrazil creates the opportunity for debate and evolution regarding several key issues. These include: a) placing metropolitan matters at the forefront of the development arena in Brazil; b) reviewing what has been learned about inter-municipal governance and service delivery; c) estimating resource mobilization needs for metropolitan development; d) coordinating metropolitan land use with transport and housing; e) including metropolitan concerns in any revision of fiscal federalism; and f) promoting environmental sustainability, social inclusion and resilience to disasters and climate change plans at the metropolitan scale. The World Bank can be a partner in addressing these issues. In responding to client demand, the Bank has been providing a range of support to Brazilian states and cities and especially their low- income populations in the areas of infrastructure, social services, slum upgrading, institutional development, river basin management, local economic development, environmental protection, water and sanitation, and transportation.

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