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Botswana Development Policy Review : An Agenda for Competitiveness and Diversification
英文名称:
作者:
World Bank
工作单位:
类型:
世界银行报告
来源地址:
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/26074
关键词:
ACCESS TO FOREIGN MARKETS AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES AGRICULTURE AIR AIR NAVIGATION AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES AIR TRANSPORT AIR TRANSPORT SECTOR AIR TRAVEL AUDITS BARRIER BENCHMARKING BILATERAL TRADE BOTTLENECKS BRAND BRIDGE BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CAPITAL GOODS CAPITAL INVESTMENT CAPITAL STOCK CAR CARRIERS CENTRAL BANK CERTAIN EXTENT COAL COMMERCE COMMODITIES COMMON MARKET COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE COMPETITIVENESS CONNECTIVITY CONSUMER CHOICE CONSUMER GOODS CONSUMER SURPLUS CONSUMERS COST STRUCTURE COUNTRY MARKETS CPI CURRENCY CUSTOMER SERVICE CUSTOMS UNION DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DEVELOPMENT POLICY DIMINISHING RETURNS DOMESTIC MARKET DOUBLE TAXATION DRIVING DUMPING ECOMMERCE ECONOMIC BOOM ECONOMIC COOPERATION ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC PROGRAMS ECONOMIC SECTORS ECONOMIES OF SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL EQUILIBRIUM EXCHANGE RATE EXPENDITURE EXPORT CREDIT EXPORT GROWTH EXPORT MARKET EXPORT MARKETS EXPORT SECTOR EXPORT SECTORS EXPORTS EXTERNAL MARKET FACTORS OF PRODUCTION FEASIBILITY STUDY FINANCIAL SECTOR FINANCIAL SERVICES FOREIGN COMPANIES FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FOREIGN FIRMS FOREIGN INVESTMENT FREE TRADE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT FUTURE GROWTH GDP GDP PER CAPITA GLOBAL MARKETS GLOBALIZATION GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATE HARMONIZATION HIGH FARES HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT HUMAN CAPITAL INCENTIVE STRUCTURE INCOME INCOME GROUPS INCOME LEVELS INCOME TAX INEFFICIENCY INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS INSTITUTIONAL MODEL INSURANCE INTERMEDIATE GOODS INTERMEDIATE INPUTS INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY INTERNATIONAL MARKET INTERNATIONAL TRADE INVENTORY INVESTMENT CLIMATE ITC JOB CREATION LAND TRANSPORT LIBERALIZATION LIVING STANDARDS LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES MACROECONOMIC MANAGEMENT MARKET ACCESS MARKET ENTRY MARKET FORCES MARKET PENETRATION MARKET POWER MARKET SEGMENTS MARKET SHARE MARKETING MARKETING BOARD MERCHANDISE MERCHANDISE EXPORTS MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRY MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES MINES MONOPOLIES MONOPOLY MOTOR VEHICLE NATIONAL INCOME NATURAL ENDOWMENTS NATURAL RESOURCE NATURAL RESOURCES NEW MARKETS OUTSOURCING OVERHEAD COSTS PASSENGERS PER CAPITA INCOME PER CAPITA INCOMES POLICY ENVIRONMENT POLITICAL ECONOMY POLITICAL STABILITY POPULATION GROWTH PORTFOLIO PRICE CONTROLS PRICE INCENTIVES PRICE REGULATION PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATIZATION PRODUCERS PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES PROTECTIONISM PURCHASING PURCHASING POWER QUALITY STANDARDS RAILWAYS RAPID EXPANSION RAPID GROWTH REAL GDP REAL GROWTH RATE REBATE RECYCLING REGIONAL TRADE REGULATOR REGULATORS REGULATORY OVERSIGHT REGULATORY RESTRICTIONS RESOURCE MANAGEMENT RETAIL RETAIL SERVICES RETAIL TRADE ROAD ROAD TRANSPORT ROAD USER ROAD USER CHARGE ROUTES RURAL COMMUNITIES SAFETY SAFETY NETS SALES SAVINGS SERVICES MARKET SOCIAL SAFETY NETS SODIUM SUBSIDY COST SUBSTITUTE SUBSTITUTION SUNSET CLAUSES SUPPLY CHAINS SURPLUSES SUSTAINABLE GROWTH TARIFF BARRIERS TAX TAX EXPENDITURES TAX RATE TAXATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS TERMS OF TRADE TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRADE BALANCE TRADE FINANCING TRADE NEGOTIATIONS TRADE POLICIES TRADE POLICY TRADES TRADING ACTIVITIES TRAFFIC TRANSIT TRANSPARENCY TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORT SERVICES TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION COSTS TRANSPORTATION SERVICES TRAVEL TRAVEL UNEMPLOYMENT VALUE ADDED VEHICLE VOLATILITY WAGES WEALTH WITHHOLDING TAX WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS WORLD MARKET WORLD MARKETS Report Rapport Informe
年份:
2012
发布时间:
学科分类:
出版地:
Washington,USA
总页数:
语种:
English
信息来源:
摘要:
Botswana has been one of the most successful countries in the developing world over the last 40 years by many measures. Incomes have grown at a sustained pace, poverty has fallen, and the citizenry has become more educated. To be sure, poverty and income inequalities remain a problem, but rising standards of living have meant a better life for this generation of Batswana than any before it. The question facing the country leadership is whether this commendable performance can be sustained into the next generation. There are clouds on the horizon that cannot be ignored. Diamond earnings, the life blood of decades of prosperity, have flattened out. In per capita terms they are falling. Moreover, because revenues from diamonds going to the public sector have been falling for more than a decade, a growth model predicated upon an ever expanding state presence is not viable. Diamond earnings accruing to the state for subsequent redistribution have peaked. Employment and wages in the public sector have reached their natural limits as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP); recycling revenues from mining into the private sector, either directly or through the financial sector, has been inefficient with low social returns; and redistributive mechanisms to support social safety nets are also likely be approaching their limits. The country confronts the challenge of looking for new sources of growth outside of government.

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